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Full text of "The Improvement Era"

Special features: 

Moses Calls Aaron to the Ministry-- page 28 

Adventures in Learning—pages 4-15 







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'"Qiefes mote forydu at^YU SummefSclipol! 




SPECIAL FEATURES 

Summer School scholarships available 
for new students. Apply before 

May 1, 1969. 

Outstanding graduate programs 
in seventy-eight fields of specialzation. 

Extensive undergraduate offerings 
in fifty-six departments. 

Eminent resident faculty augmented 
by distinguished guest instructors. 

Workshops, seminars, conferences, 
institutes, festivals, and lyceums. 

Classes in air-conditioned buildings. 

World-famous Timpanogos Hike. 

Wide variety of recreational activities including boating, fishing, 

hiking and swimming. 

Attractive living accomodation in air-conditioned University housing. 

Gigantic 4th of July celebration. 

Cultural enrichment through lectures, plays, concerts, and exhibits. 




CALENDAR OF EVENTS 

May 31, Application for admission due. 

June 11-14, Education Week on campus. 

June 13-14, New student orientation 

June 16, Registration 

June 17 Instruction begins 

July 4, National holiday observed. 

July 18, First Term ends 

July 19, Second Term registration. 

July 21, Second Term begins. 

July 24, State holiday observed 

July 26 School in session (Saturday). 

August 21, Second Term ends. 

August 21, Ninety-Fourth Summer Convocation. 

Write for a free Summer School Catalog today. 

Summer School Director 
Brigham Young University 
Provo, Utah 84601 



Half the fun is a summer in 



HISTORIC PROVO UTAH 




a city of recreation which hosts the largest July 4th Celebration in the nation 

Convenience, excitement, 
and enjoyment all describe 
the pleasures awaiting you 
in Provo City during your 
leisure hours out of the 
classroom. Provo is a city 
designed for living. Facili- 
ties abound for recreational 
and cultural pursuits to 
make your summer here the 
experience of a lifetime. 




On the Cover: 

The painting of Moses and Aaron, 
a portion of which is shown on our 
cover, makes a fitting cover subject 
for the month of April, a month in 
which, 139 years ago, the Church was 
organized under the power of the priest- 
hood. (See page 29 for an article on 
the painting, and pages 28 and 29 for a 
reproduction of the entire painting.) 
The painting, by Harry Anderson, is one 
of a series on prophets of the Old 
Testament prepared for the Church's 
visitors centers. 

An additional feature this month is 
the fine selection of articles on the 
theme "Adventures in Learning," fea- 
turing the 1969 Brigham Young Uni- 
versity Education Week theme that will 
be used throughout the Church this 
year. 

The many sides of learning — Education 
Week style. 



April 1969 




The Voice of the Church • April 1969 • Volume 72, Number 4 



Special Features 



2 

4 

5 

8 

10 

13 

29 

36 

57 

60 

66 

74 



Editor's Page: The Gate of Baptism, President David 0. McKay 

Adventures in Learning 

"Seek Learning ... by Study and by Faith," Dr. Lowell L. Bennion 

The Knowledge Explosion and Its Effect on Religion, Dr. Henry Eyring 

Fostering Learning in Children, Dr. Elliott D. Landau 

Adults — and This Business of Learning, Dr. Harold Glen Clark 

The Painting of Moses and Aaron, Richard J. Marshall 

The Mormons and the Irish, Brent A. Barlow 

The Restored Gospel in the British Isles 

Survival of the British Mission During World War II, Andre K. Anasta- 
sion, Sr. 

A New Look at the Pearl of Great Price: Part 7, The Unknown Abraham 

(continued), Dr. Hugh Nibley 

David Whitmer, the Independent Missouri Businessman (Part 7), 

Dr. Richard Lloyd Anderson 



Regular Features 



24 

32 
64 
82 

84 
88 
90 
93 



Melchizedek Priesthood Page: How to Delegate Wisely (Part 1), Elder 
Ezra Taft Benson 

Lest We Forget: The Wedding of the Rails, Albert L. Zobell, Jr. 

The LDS Scene 

The Presiding Bishop's Page: The Presiding Bishop Talks to Youth 
About Tithing, Bishop John H. Vandenberg 

Today's Family: Mother Habits, Florence B. Pinnock 

Buffs and Rebuffs 

The Church Moves On 

These Times: The Nixon Approach to National Administration, Dr. G. 

Homer Durham 



96 End of an Era 

65, 69, 88, 92 The Spoken Word, Richard L. Evans 

Era of Youth 

41-56 Marion D. Hanks and Elaine Cannon, Editors 



Fiction, Poetry 



16 Personal Appraisal, Roger Winship Stuart 
12, 15, 28, 73, 92 Poetry 

David O. McKay and Richard L. Evans, Editors; Doyle L. Green, Managing Editor; Albert L. Zobell, Jr., Research Editor; Mabel Jones Gabbott, Jay M. Todd, 
Eleanor Knowles, William T. Sykes, Editorial Associates; Florence B. Pinnock, Today's Family Editor; Marion D. Hanks, Era of Youth Editor; Elaine Cannon, 

Era of Youth Associate Editor; Ralph Reynolds, Art Director; Norman F. Price, Staff Artist. 

G. Homer Durham, Franklin S. Harris, Jr., Hugh Nibley, Sidney B. Sperry, Albert L. Payne, Contributing Editors. 

G. Carlos Smith, Jr., General Manager; Florence S. Jacobsen, Associate General Manager; Verl F. Scott, Business Manager; A. Gien Snarr, Acting Business 

Manager and Subscription Director; Thayer Evans, S. Glenn Smith, Advertising Representatives. 

© General Superintendent, Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1969. and published by the 

Mutual Improvement Associations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. All rights reserved. Subscription price, $3.00 a year, in advance; 

multiple subscriptions. 2 years. $5.75; 3 years, $8.25; each succeeding year, $2.50 a year added to the three-year price; 350 single copy, except for 

special issues. 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, as second class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, 

act of October 1917, authorized July 2, 1918. 

The Improvement Era is not responsible for unsolicited manuscripts but welcomes contributions. Manuscripts are paid for on acceptance and must be 

accompanied by sufficient postage for delivery and return. 

Thirty days' notice is required for change of address. When ordering a change, please include address slip from a recent issue of the magazine. Address 

chanRes cannot be made unless the old address as well as the new one is included. 

Official organ of the Priesthood Quorums, Mutua! Improvement Associations. Home Teaching Committee, Music Committee, Church School 
System, and other agencies of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

The Improvement Era, 79 South State, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 



• "Baptism," said the Prophet Joseph Smith, "is a sign to 
God, . . . and there is no other way beneath the heavens whereby 
God hath ordained for man to come to Him to be saved, and enter 
into the Kingdom of God, except faith in Jesus Christ, repen- 
tance, and baptism for the remission of sins, and any other course 
is in vain; then you have the promise of the gift of the Holy 
Ghost." (Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, p. 198.) 

Baptism is one of the first principles and ordinances of the 
gospel. As an established rite of the Church, it is classified 
clearly as an ordinance. Though in the strict analysis it may 
not be considered a principle in the sense that faith and repen- 
tance are principles, yet it becomes such, inasmuch as it is law 
established by divine power. 

Baptism always connotes the fundamental principles of 
spiritual growth. Associated with this ordinance are sincerity, 
simplicity, and purity — sincerity, "the mother of a noble family 
f I 1L~ of virtues," and simplicity and purity, "the two wings with which 

-L A AC man soars above the earth and all temporary nature." 
^~ ^ Everyone who desires to have administered unto him this 

1 jrQT^ Cy\ sacred rite should possess these three virtues. He should go be- 
fore his Maker in sincerity, with contrite and penitent heart, 
IJ QYVT" I CiYY^I acknowledge his weaknesses and errors, and manifest a desire 
IT to live a new life. He should have no selfish ends to serve. He 

should sincerely desire to come into the fold of God, to be num- 



The Editor's Page 



bered with His people, and "to bear others' burdens that they may 
be light." Only in this manner can the eternal principle of true 
By President David O. McKay repentance be made manifest. 

"Blessed are the pure in heart," the Savior taught, "for they 
shall see God." No impure heart, though baptized a hundred 
times, can approach him. 

Simplicity is manifest in one's intent. Prompting the soul 
to obedience, it drives from it all desire to ostentation, publicity, 
personal honor, or earthly emoluments. The simple desire to 
comply with one of God's commandments is manifest in worthy 
intent. 

Nor is it in the intent alone that the virtue of simplicity is 
associated; it is found in the administration of the ordinance as 
well. Every account of baptism in sacred history bears evidence 
of this. Take, for example, the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan ; 
of Queen Candace's servant by Philip ; of the jailor by Paul and 
Silas ; of Cornelius and his household by Peter ; and of Helam and 

2 Improvement Era 



others by Alma. All these instances seem to have been character- 
ized by simplicity and sacredness. There is no evidence of set 
periods of preparation, of pompous ceremony, and of irrelevant 
rites. Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, repentance from sin, as 
shown in sincerity and purity of life, and a desire to become 
affiliated with God's people were the only preparatory 
requirements. 

Jesus was baptized of John in order to "fulfill all righteous- 
ness" (see Matt. 3:15), "but the Pharisees and lawyers rejected 
the counsel of God against themselves, being not baptized of him." 
(Luke 7:30.) 

To Nicodemus Jesus said, "Except a man be born of water 
and of the Spirit, he, cannot enter into the kingdom of God." 
(John 3:5.) 

To the members of the Church in general, Peter wrote, "For 
ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus. For as 
many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ." 
(Gal. 3 :26-27.) "The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also 
now save us ... by the resurrection of Jesus Christ." (IPet. 3:21.) 

In these three instances we have set forth clearly the three- 
fold purpose of the ordinance of baptism : 

( 1 ) A rite established by God himself and associated with 
the eternal principle of righteousness — compliance with the law, 
therefore, being essential to man's salvation. 

(2) An initiatory ordinance — the gateway leading to mem- 
bership into the fold of Christ. 

(3) A beautiful and sublime symbol typifying the burial of 
the old person with all his weaknesses and impurities, and the 
coming forth into a newness of life. 

The ordinance of baptism is a law of God, obedience to which 
—in sincerity, in purity, in simplicity — brings inevitably the 
promised blessing of the Comforter, a divine guide, whom they 
who "change the ordinance and transgress the law" can never 
know. Though men may scoff at it, ridicule it, and doubt its 
efficacy, baptism remains ever, even in its simplicity, not only 
one of the most beautiful symbols known, but also one of the 
most effective laws operating for the salvation of man. In bap- 
tism, then, as in all other things, all men should follow him who 
said: 

"I am the light of the world : he that f olloweth me shall not 
walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life." (John 8:12.) o 

April 1969 






If the glory of God is intelligence (see Doctrine 
& Covenants 93:36), then perhaps the glory of 
man is his pursuit of God-like intelligence and 
God-like, use of that intelligence. This month we 
fieaUire the following four articles on the general 
theme" Adventures in Learning,", joining <\ the 1969, 
Brigham Young University Education Week theme 
to be used throughout the Church this year.' Since 
1922, BYU Education Week programs have as- 
sisted Latter-day Saints in their pursuit of im- 



portant and worthwhile knowledge, The prograpx 
is now one of the oldest and largest continuing 
adult education programs in the United States. 
More than 4-7 ,000 persons, ranging in age from, 
1U to 97, attended sessions last year. The program, 
in operation from June to September, is held in 53 
locations in 288 stakes in the United. States, Can- 
ada, and Mexico, for an average of three days in 
each location, and features more than 200 faculty 
members, ivho give, emphasis to family relations. 



Improvement Era 



"Seek Learning . . .by Study 

and by Faith" 

JBy Dr. Lowell L. Bennion 



Dr. Lowell L. Bennion, a member of the Youth Correla- 
tion Committee and a Sunday School teacher in the 
East Mill Creek (Salt Lake City) 12th Ward, has taught 
college students for 35 years and has long been inter- 
ested in helping people relate religion to their secular 
learning, "believing that each can be mutually enriching." 




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• Courageous and colorful Elijah stood on Mount 
Carmel and cried to ancient Israel;- "How long halt 
ye between two opinions? if the Lord be God, follow 
him: but if Baal, then follow hiih. And the people 
answered him not a word." (1 Kings "187-21.) The rea- 
son is clear, for Elijah had offered the people the only 
alternatives available— either serve Baal or the living- 
God. 

, For modern Israel, the, choice is markedly different: 
we have inherited all. the vice and virtue, folly and 
wisdom of the. ages. Life was never so rich and 
promising, full of wonder, and at the same time 
infinitely, complex, uncertain, and in flux .The youth- 
ful Latter-day Saint, nourished in the faith of his 
fathers and brought, face to face with the explosion 
of knowledge and the changing values of a secular, 
age, has a real task to build an adequate, personal 
philosophy of life. Where can he find its content? 

Two great legacies have been the main roots nour- 
ishing the life and thought of Western civilization— the 
Judeo-Christian faith and the reasoning of the Greeks. 
From; the Hebrew prophets and Jesus and Paul we 
have acquired faith in a personal, living God, a reve- 
lator of truth, who demands justice and mercy in 
human relations. Many of our most cherished insti- 
tutions— government by law, democracy, the worth of 
the individual, compassion for the weak, equality of 
access to goods and rights— have come to us from thej 
prophets. 

The Greek philosophers^ unlike the Hebrew proph- 
ets, were not devout in their 1 religious faith; rather, 
they were among the first to discover man's great 
capacity to think and to create. They produced un- 
excelled literature, sculpture, and architecture, arid 
were also able to examine themselves and the universe 
with both insight ; and objectivity. They laid the 
foundations of philosophy and modern science. 

And so from Jew and Christian we have acquired 



"a will to believe" and "a hunger and thirst after 
righteousness," and from the Greeks in particular, an 
inquiring, questioning, critical attitude of mind. Wil- 
liam James called religious people tender-minded and 
philosophers and scientists tough-minded. The youth- 
ful Latter-day Saint is encouraged to be both— a feat 
that is not easy to accomplish. 

, In the restoration there is a remarkable marriage of 
faith and reason, One would expect the restored 
gospel to revive faith in a living God, his Son Jesus 
Christ, and the dignity of man as a child of God, 
and to renew and underscore the biblical and 
prophetic emphasis on righteousness. And it did. 
But something else is added, something akin to the 
Greek commitment to reason. The restored gospel 
was not to be given to man, fixed and complete, like 
a package of frozen fruit from a deep freezer. Rather 
it was to be like fresh-flowing water from a mountain 
spring,- Religion, even as art and science, was to be 
a growing, continuing revelation from God in response 
to man's search and need. 

Joseph Smith also learned that not all , knowledge 
was "to come .through scripture and prophets." . . 
men should be anxiously engaged in a good cause, 
and do many things of their own free will,- ... For 
the power is in them, wherein they are agents, unto 
themselves! ..." (D&C 58:27-28.) 

The first religious building of the Latter-day Saints 
became a temple of learning- as well as a house of 
worship, wherein men were to seek learning by study 
and by faith and wisdom out of the best books. The 
curriculum was to include astronomy, geology, his- 
tory, political science, current events, languages, as 
well as theology. ( D&C 88,) 

Modern, revelations, made room for and encouraged 
thinking. Great sayings have driven many a Mormon 
youth to study at home and abroad: "The glory of 
God is intelligence." "Man is saved no faster than 



April 1969 




Adventures in Learning 




O 



he gains knowledge." "All kingdoms have a law." 
"There is a law irrevocably decreed." 

Mormon writers— notably Brigham Young, B. H. 
Roberts, James E. Talmage, and John A. Widtsoe— 
have emphasized the rational character of the restored 
gospel, as illustrated in Dr. Widtsoe's title to an early 
work: A Rational Theology, 

This combination of faith and reason in the restored 
gospel, so consistent with our interests and needs, is 
also a source of conflict in the Church. Taught by 
their faith to seek learning, youth find their venture 
into the "halls of ivy" sometimes shakes the very 
foundations of their Judeo-Christian-Latter-day Saint 
faith. Ricks College, Brigham Young University, 
Church College of Hawaii, institutes of religion, and 
seminaries have been established to help students 
keep the faith while they pursue secular studies. But 
in the last analysis it is up to each individual to find 
his way and to effect a compatible marriage between 
the worlds of faith and reason. 

It is not surprising that students find difficulty in 
harmonizing their faith, born of religion, with the 
rational processes of secular thought. The language, 
spirit, and emphasis of each is different. They may 
seem worlds, apart. Some Latter-day Saint youths for- 
sake their religion in favor of their newly acquired 
intellectual interest; others turn their backs on learn- 
ing for fear of losing their precious faith. Still others 
learn to live with a genuine appreciation for faith 
and reason. Some conflict is healthy if it leads to 
genuine search and a testing of one's faith. 

The Latter-day Saint who has come to know the 
essence and spirit of the restored gospel has no 
choice but to include both faith and reason in his 
view of life. Our religion teaches us a profound 
respect for the believing heart and the searching 
mind. Man's precarious predicament as a transient, 
contingent creature whirling powerlessly through 
space demands either faith or despair; and his crea- 
tive love of life is best fulfilled through faith. More- 
over, not to use fully that which is most distinctive 
about one's nature— his mind— is to deny one's very 
nature as a human being and child of God. Life is 
big enough to respond to and accommodate all that 
we can feel and know through mind and heart. We 
shall conclude our reflections by suggesting some 
ways by which this can be done. 

1. One should respect the differences between faith 
and reason and not expect them to give us identical 
views of life. To use the marriage analogy, a couple 
makes a big mistake if they expect a man and woman 



to feel, think, and act alike. Both are human, but 
markedly different in outlook and role, and should 
complement rather than demand the same things of 
each other. So it is also with philosophy and science 
on the one hand and religion on the other. This will 
be more clear with illustrations. 

Geology is a study of the earth— an exact, method- 
ical, experimental, and comprehensive study of cause- 
and-effect relationships in regard to the formation 
and history of the earth. Thousands of scientific books 
and articles have told that story in great detail, the 
how of ongoing creation. 

Religion is also interested in the earth, but from 
a very different perspective. The scriptures give us 
few details of creation; they tell us, for example, 
nothing of the causes or effects of erosion. The empha- 
sis on creation in Genesis is to declare that "in the 
beginning God created the heaven and the earth . . . , " 
that God said, "Let the dry land appear . . . ," and that 
he said, "Let us make man in our image. . . ." (See 
Gen. 1. ) In the Book of Moses, Chapter 1, is given 
that sweeping view of the ongoing, endless creations 
of the Father and Son: "worlds without number"— not 
in the language of astronomy, physics, chemistry, or 
geology, but rather to inspire faith in the divine pur- 
pose in creation, "to bring to pass the immortality and 
eternal life of man." 

Scriptural references to nature are always made for 
religious purposes— to glorify the Creator and to build 
awe and trust toward him and his law. Read the 
eighth or twenty-third Psalm, Chapters 38 to 41 of 
Job, or Section 88 of the Doctrine and Covenants, 
and you will sense this religious emphasis and pur- 
pose. Science describes nature in objective, imper- 
sonal language; religion uses a more poetic language 
—idealistic, aspirational, value-laden— to inspire us to 
believe in God, honor his name, and find life's 
meaning. 

There is naturally some overlapping between sci- 
ence and religion. The Word of Wisdom, for exam- 
ple, has descriptive facts in it: e.g., "tobacco is not 
for the body. . . ." But this was given as a simple, 
direct statement of the Lord and not couched in scien- 
tific language nor verified by controlled scientific 
experiments. The whole tone of the revelation is 
religious. 

Nearly all scripture has come to us through men 
who lived in a pre-scientific age, who spoke the lan- 
guage of faith and morality, and not the descriptive, 
precise language of the textbook. The scriptures tell 
us of our relationship to God and Christ and of our 



Improvement Era 



moral responsibilities to fellowmen- they deal with 
faith, morality, and brotherhood. We do them a great 
injustice if we try to derive geology and zoology from 
Genesis, astronomy from the Psalms, physics from the 
Doctrine and Covenants, or physiology from the Boole 
of Jonah. * 

Religion is not anti-scientific, anti-philosophical, nor 
irrational; it is supra-empirical or supra-rational. It 
takes us beyond scientific knowledge, seeking to give 
meaning to the whole of life by defining man's pur- 
pose and place in total being. It helps man to be at 
home on earth and in the universe— whereas from a 
purely scientific point of view, he may feel, as one 
biologist said, "as an infinitesimal bit of nothingness 
standing on the brink of eternity," 

2. Both science and religion tell man to walk loith 
humility. In both areas, the unknown far. exceeds the, 
known, for man's perspective is earthbound. 

Sir Isaac Newton, one of the great geniuses of mod- 
ern science, said: "1 do not know what I may appear 
to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only 
a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself 
in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a pret- 
tier shell than ordinary;, while the great ocean of truth 
lay all undiscovered before me." (Brewster, Memoirs 
of Newton, Vol. 2, Chapter 27.) Every l scientist 
deserving of the name knows that his conclusions are 
tentative, that they will be superseded by larger 
views that will change the meaning of his present 
particular views. He pursues science because it is 
fruitful, enabling him to cope in a measure with the 
life that* is his. 

Religion invites the same spirit of humility. The 
Lord answered Job in these words: "Who is this that 
darkeneth counsel -by- words without knowledge?" 
(Job 38:2,) And King Benjamin declared the obvious 
when he said, ". ..".'. believe that man doth not coiripre- 
hend all the things which the Lord can comprehend." 
•(Mosiah 4:9.) Isaiah said: "For my thoughts are not 
your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith 
the Lord. For as the heavens are higher than the 
earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my 
thoughts than your thoughts." (Isa. 55:8-9.) No won- 
der Paul concluded, "For now we see through a glass, 
darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; 
but then shall I know even as also I am known." (1 
Cor. 13:12.) 

Even though the gospel comes to us through revela- 
tion from the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, it has to 
be given to us "in their [men's] weakness, after the 
manner of their language, that they might come to 
understanding." (D&C 1:24.) Man sees as rnan, not 
as God. Therefore, it is becoming to us to be modest 



as well as bold, and to keep an open and inquiring 
mind, for we can learn from our Maker throughout 
eternity. 

3, Alloiv for change and growth in your view of 
both science and religion. We have already com- 
mented above on the tentative nature of the findings 
of science and how little is still known of what is to 
be known. The same holds true for religion. The 
gospel embraces eternal principles, but their full 
meaning is only known to Deity. None of us can 
grasp the full nature of God, freedom, love, repentance, 
or any other principle. Hence the great need to keep 
open minds in matters of both faith and reason. My 
idea , of honesty today is larger than it was when I was 
a child and thought of it only in terms of lying and 
stealing. And this hopefully holds true of every 
principle. I am still trying to understand love and 
how to best express it toward my friends and "ene- 
mies," and how to apply the principle in business, in 
civil rights, and in international relations. 

It was Goethe who said, in his immortal Faust: 
"What from your father's heritage is lent, earn it anew 
to really possess it." Each generation of Latter-day 
Saints, as each individual, must learn the gospel for 
himself, in his time, in his circumstances. For him it 
must take. root, grow into a tree, give forth buds, 
blossom, and bear fruit. 

4. Be loyal to both faith and reason, to both the 
Hebrew arid Greek traditions. The gospel of Jesus 
Christ-^the faith and morality of the prophets and the 
Savior— has vindicated itself in our lives. The twenty- 
third Psalm gives us hope and comfort against the 
tragedies of human existence. Faith, repentance, 
fellowship in Christ through baptism, and the 
Beatitudes give us a map of life to live by that has 
proved itself to be true, good, and beautiful. The 
gospel is reasonable as well as calling us to fake the 
"leap of faith." 

Science has also vindicated itself in, our lives. It 
has enabled us to reckon with laws and forces of 
nature, thereby eliminating much fear, superstition, 
and disease, and saving and prolonging life. It has 
given us a method and a spirit of learning that has 
opened up vast vistas of life in a fascinating manner. 

Since faith arid study have both proved to be so 
fruitful, why should we abdicate either one to the 
other? Why should we not suspend judgment in areas 
of conflict? Why not use both faith and reason in 
religion and in our academic Work as we seek to know 
the truth? 

The good life is one inspired of love, sustained by 
faith, and guided by knowledge. May we have the 
wisdom to pursue it by study and by faith. o 



April 1969 



The Knowledge 
Explosion and Its 
Effect on Religion 

By Dr. Henry Eyring 



Dr. Henry Eyring, a member of the Sunday School 
general board and distinguished professor of chemistry 
at the University of Utah, is an internationally eminent 
physical chemist who has received the National Medal 
of Science. He has been president of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science and presi- 
dent of the American Chemical Society. 




• A principal reason for disagreement between rea- 
sonable people is failure to communicate. The 
knowledge explosion has much the same effect as the 
confusion of tongues at the tower of Babel. Our 
society, with torrents of information pouring over it, 
tends to segregate into little groups that speak a com- 
mon technical language. This is because the digesting 
of another viewpoint requires greater effort than most 
of us are willing to invest. A rapid increment of 
knowledge accentuates the generation gap. Students 
going to high school and college now acquire a very 
different body of information than their parents did. 
Authoritarian and democratic societies are both made 
uncomfortable by this gap between the generations, 
as well as the gap between groups with different 
backgrounds, but they tend to adjust to the discom- 



fort in different ways, Lucifer's plan is to ride rough- 
shod over any dissent. The gospel plan is to respect 
honest differences and try to resolve them, and failing 
that, tq find a modus . vivendi until the differences 
can be resolved. This isn't easv or as common in 
practice as in theory. 

Verse 37 of Section 121 of the Doctrine and Cove- 
nants is relevant: ; . _ 

". . . when we undertake to cover our sins, or to 
gratify our pride, our vain ambition, or to exercise 
control or dominion or compulsion upon the souk of 
the children of men, in any degree of unrighteousness, 
behold, the heavens withdraw themselves; the Spirit 
of the Lord is grieved; and when it is withdrawn. 
Amen to the priesthood or the authority of that man." 

The gospel meets difficulties associated with honest 



Improvement Era 



differences by pointing out that many things are as 
yet unsettled and that we may expect they will be 
resolved in due course. This is also the position of 
science with respect to the unknown. The difficulty 
is that individuals, being human and having different 
backgrounds, allocate perplexing questions in dif- 
ferent ways to the known, the unknown, and the 
unknowable. This problem is resolved for me by the 
recognition that God, the Supreme Intelligence, has a 
conception of the world that is free from contradic- 
tions, and that the goal in the gospel and in science 
must be to arrive at this same ultimate truth by all the 
appropriate means at our disposal. •;■ The gospel 
doesn't require one to believe anything that isn't true; 
rather, it embraces all truth, whatever the source. 
All contradictions will finally be resolved as our 
understanding deepens. 

What are some of these modern findings that we 
must fit into our thinking if we are to keep up with 
the times? 

1. Space exploration is a reality. Man has orbited 
the moon and will almost certainly put foot on it this 
year or next. People who once believed the world 
was flat survived the discovery that it was round with 
no ultimate damage to their religious faith. The space 
age will be no more damaging to our religious faith. 

2. Viruses, which by the usual criteria are living 
things, are made up of genetic material, like our 
chromosomes, and of enzymes, consisting of proteins. 
Scientists have separated these two materials, making 
the virus nonviable, and have then put them back 
together again, restoring the activity of the virus. 
Further, choromosome-like materials, as well as en- 
zymes, have been synthesized. These accomplishments 
have led some people to say that man has or can 
create life, and this has been a shock to some people. 
This can be thought of quite differently. If man 
should prove that life cannot be created, he would 
have proved too much, since life obviously exists. If 
God wanted man to create a virus, he would only have 
to teach him the correct principles and one must 
suppose man could then do it. For Latter-day Saints 
who believe that man is the spirit child of God, every 
great achievement of man only tends to bear out the 
doctrine that there are no limits to the degree of 
advancement to which man can attain if he follows 
correct principles. 

3. Man's body starts as one single cell, to which the 
father contributes 23 chromosomes and the mother 
contributes 23. The chromosomes consist of a long 
chain of sugar molecules, with phosphoric acid link- 
ing each pair of sugars together. Each sugar mole- 
cule also has a nucleic acid molecule linked to the side 



of it. There are four kinds of nucleic acids: adenine, 
cytosine, quanine, and thymine. A length of the 
chromosome containing about 600 of each of the three 
kinds of molecules, i. e., sugar,' nucleic acid, arici 
phosphoric acid, constitutes a gene and carries the 
information for synthesizing one enzyme. 

Since the 46 chromosomes placed end to. end extend 
about a yard, which is about ten thousand million 
angstroms, while each gene is about 6,000 angstroms 
long, it follows that the chromosomes in a human cell 
contain a little over a million genes. Each of these 
genes contains the , specifications for making a mole- 
cule, often an enzyme, which the body needs to carry 
on its functions. The enzymes are made by stringing 
amino acids together. 

The sequence of 600 nucleic acids in a gene fixes 
the sequence of the 200 amino acids in the correspond- 
ing enzyme. Thus a sequence of three nucleic acids 
determines the next amino acid to go into an enzyme. 
Painstaking research has established which particular 
sequence of three nucleic acids specifies a particular 
amino acid in an enzyme. This great achievement is 
described as breaking the genetic code. It raises such 
questions as whether faulty genes at some future 
time may be mended, and how much can heredity be 
influenced and controlled through our knowledge of 
the genetic code. Again one is impressed by man's 
ingenuity and is thankful for a religion that believes 
in eternal progression and places no limit on what 
man can hope to accomplish when he operates in 
harmony with law. ' 

4. Cancer has been a scourge of mankind as far 
back as we have any record. The greatest difference 
between cancerous and normal cells is that the former 
show uncontrolled growth. This property continues 
after cell division in both daughter cancerous cells. 
This indicates that, the genetic materials— the chromo- 
somes—that govern cell behavior have themselves 
been changed as normal cells are converted to can- 
cerous cells. All the normal cells in the body have the 
same set of genes, but cells in the skin and those in 
the brain, for example,, develop differently. This 
differentiation of the cells is brought about by selec- 
tive inhibition of the genes by inhibitors that cling , 
tightly to their surface and prevent them from manu- 
facturing their particular enzyme so that reactions 
that such an enzyme promotes are slowed down or 
stopped in the inhibited cell. 

Various chemicals, radiation, and viruses that cause 
cancer can bring about this uncontrolled growth if they 
destroy the genes that manufacture the inhibitors that 
slow down cell growth. Another possibility is that in 
cancer, genetic material is added to the chromosomes, 



April 1969 




^Adventures in Learning 




making the cancer cells difficult to inhibit., There are 
over a hundred distinguishable types of cancer, some 
of which— such as leukemia— are responding to treat- 
ment. 

Most treatments take, advantage of the vulner- 
ability of the cell to appropriate chemicals (or 
radiation) during the time the cell is dividing. This 
explains why these agents are selectively effective 
against the fast-growing cells of cancer that are di- 
viding rapidly. 

It is reasonable to expect that many kinds of cancer 
will be successfully treated during the lifetime of 



people now living. If we are successful, we will 
eradicate the third largest killer of mankind. The 
unselfish dedication of one's energies to finding the 
means to eliminate this kind of human suffering is an 
appropriate pursuit for a Latter-day Saint in contrast 
to the nihilism, popular in some quarters, that seeks 
only to destroy society. 

"For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; and 
whosoever will lose his life for my sake shall find it. 

"For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the 
whole world, and lose his own soul? or what shall a 
man give in exchange for his soul?" (Matt.16: 25-26. )o 




Fostering 
Learning 

in Children 

By Dr. Elliott D. Landau 



^v 




Dr. Elliott D. Landau is a professor of education at the 
University of Utah, chairman of the advisory committee 
to the Utah Second District Juvenile Court, a member of 
the executive board of American Civil Liberties Union, 
and an authority on children's literature. He teaches 
Sunday School in the Yalecrest (Salt Lake City) Ward. 



• There is an apochiyphal legend in Jewish family 
folklore that tells us how the love of learning from 
the scriptures was fostered in Jewish children at a 
very early age. It is said that while yet upon his 
mother's knee, a little boy's finger was moved to a 
page of the testaments upon which a, daub of honey 



had been placed. His finger was dipped in the honey, 
then brought to his tongue. Thus the association 
between sweetness and learning was established, and 
the romance between the child and his love for learn- 
ing was begun. 
What is even more interesting than this early con- 



10 



Improvement Era 



ditioning technique of linking a new behavior with 
a pleasant old one is the fact that the mother cared 
enough in the first place to go through the associative 
ritual. The love of learning, then, is not alone a 
hereditary stroke of luck; it is also a conscious con- 
cern of parents. 

As we inquire further into this subject, the words 
"conscious concern" will be stressed and need to be 
explicitly defined. It might seem that many parent- 
child interactions are "natural" (loving, feeding, and 
caring); but if this were entirely so, we would be 
hard put to explain the many instances of child 
neglect, the battered-child syndrome, and so forth. 
And so, as in the song from South Pacific, "You've Got 
to Be Taught," it is important that parents realize 
that the love of learning won't just happen unless there 
is some premediated parental behavior that will 
lead the child to want to learn, to love to learn. Goats 
do not instill in their kids any relish for learning; it is 
one of the marvels of creation that man, through 
deliberate intentions, can create in his young direction, 
drive, and the thirst for knowing. 

Some years ago, Dr. Howard Lane said, "Learning 
is always subordinate to the demands of the person- 
ality as a whole." In these wise words there seems to 
be counsel from which parents of very young children 
will learn much. Abroad in the land today are devices, 
schemes, and programs designed to cultivate the 
intellect of children who are far too young to even 
partially comprehend the reasons or purposes of the 
mental gymnastics they are required to do. There are 
those who speak of controlling human behavior as if 
children were merely flesh wired for sound. The 
distressing part of these attempts at forced mind- 
feeding is that they are based on the valid theory that 
children can learn much earlier than we have sus- 
pected. Unless the dawning years before the age of 
four have been rich in both verbal and nonverbal 
experiences, and unless those years were carefully 
planned to develop children with strong concepts of 
themselves as good, worthwhile, and able, few learn- 
ing gimmicks will "take." It is impossible to achieve 
learning that will be fully assimilated into character 
unless the new ways of behavior seem essential to 
the children in achieving their own genuine purposes. 

Phrased more pointedly in the direction of the 
issue at hand— namely, the stimulation of the child 
to want to learn— it is suggested that the basic needs 
of childhood must first be fulfilled (tenderness, love, 
care) before the intellect will be able to cope with 
the abstractions of knowledge. Not that there aren't 
those who, leaving these lines, would turn to a favorite 
three-year-old, ask a question based upon some re- 



cently acquired fact, and then seemingly have de- 
stroyed my thesis. The test of learning is not the 
power to parrot responses but rather the internaliza- 
tion of newly learned materials so that behavior is 
clearly changed, Again, phrased somewhat differ- 
ently, the enduring results of learning are the feelings, 
meanings, insights that the learner accrues. 

Parents who would foster learning must first be 
certain that home conditions are appropriate for the 
freeing of the child's power to learn. Too frequently, 
either because of economic necessity or because a 
"good address" or an extra car are considered impor- 
tant enough symbols, parents both go to work, leaving 
their preschool-age children for the most significant 
hours of the day. On occasion the person chosen to 
tend the children might be the perfect individual to 
help in the task of the development of a child's per- 
sonality. Too often it is someone who tends the time 
and not the child. In the latter instance it might be 
well for all of us to wish for Al Capp's Shmoo— a 
subhuman blob of protoplasm that is able to change 
diapers, feed, and see to it that children don't run 
barefoot in the park. 

When young children are left with just anyone, it 
is possible that this may be construed by the child 
as rejection from his parents. The human spirit, Dr. 
Lane has said, has scant tolerance for rejection. While 
I see little if any evidence to support the notion that 
working mothers produce delinquent or neurotic chil- 
dren, I am not at all sure that clear distinctions have 
been made concerning when mothers have gone to 
work and its relationship to the production of delin- 
quent behavior. Enough is known today to say that 
the crucial years in intellectual and character develop- 
ment are nearly over by the time a child is ready to 
start first grade. If, indeed, a child views his early 
experiences as essentially one of "they don't need me, 
so they went away," we may be reasonably certain 
that this crimping of personality needs will have ah 
adverse effect upon his zest for learning. 

At this point the reader may be saying to himself, 
"Why doesn't he go beyond those early years— get to 
the meat of the matter: concrete suggestions for en- 
couraging learning for my nine-year-old boy, my 14- 
year-old girl, or my college student who has suddenly 
dropped out mentally?" Why not? Because in these 
preschool years nearly 80 percent of a person's capacity 
is either brought to fruition or well-tamped down. New 
research in human development forces all who are con- 
cerned with learning to evaluate these early years. Pro- 
fessor James Hymes says that there is so much to 
learn today that even the pushiest preschool formal 
program cannot cram it all into children, no matter 



April 1969 



11 




how early it starts. Yet the" old ' concept of ' childhood 
as a passive wait^ until kindergarten starts must never 
prevail, particularly in the minds of parents. Child- 
hood t is the time for learning— learning to learn, the 
excitement of hearing Questions answered, of explor-, 
jng .things and ideas, of hearing beautiful language 
from books. 

Enthusiasm for learning is contagious, and alert 
mothers will start the learning of their children while 
the children are still in the crib. Children's rooms 
ought to be full of color, movement, music. Infants 
need to be able to push, pull, find, hide, and seek. 
The quiet, antiseptic, out-of-the-way baby's room is 
no longer conducive to the concept of v early learning. 
Strait-laced programs to teach babies the alphabet are 
not part of this plan, nor are any gadgets that slide 
rewards down to the child for correct responses to 
meaningless tasks. A virile learning atmosphere for 
infants suggests that humans utilize a variety of stimu- 
lating experiences that are appropriate for childhood. 

Those who really believe that "men are, that they 
might have joy" will surely want no less for, children. 
Whatever we plan to dp to and with young children 
needs to be first examined in the light of this maxim. 
Alone, ,it may suggest that as long as the "children 
love it," it is enough. This Could justify an all-day 
experience of watching cartoons on TV. On the other 
hand, the likelihood of children learning to love learn- 
ing will not come from new-fangled programs that 
forget the integrity of the child or that wish to 
obliterate the early years' times of , experimentation 
and. up and down progress in what Eda LeShan called 
"the conspiracy against childhood." 

Clearly, fostering learning in children cannot be 
only a verbal admonition. Children need to be con- 
vinced that all who help raise them are learners too. 
Children at all ages thrill to their parents, teachers, 
or uncles who are also students. I'd like my children 
to come home from school and tell me about their 
teachers who* meet once a week to study the new 
mathematics. I'd love to think that at least one teacher 
in the lives of my children will talk with them about 
a book they are reading— just because' reading is an 
intellectual activity, not because anyone assigned it. 



in Learning 




I'd like '"-.children to know what it means to have to 
tiptoe through the house because Mommy is studying. 
I'd like to be sure that children know what a Mormon 
study group really does— true, they may know, that 
their parents are out, but do they realize what a study 
group is£ Not" long ago I was explaining the study 
group idea to an editor of the world's largest publish- 
ing company, and he was intrigued by its possibilities 
in promoting^ the excitement of learning. The love of 
learning is caught, not taught. 

" I emphatically disagree with the eminent psycholo- 
gist B. F, Skinner, who said, "Of course pigeons aren't 
people, hut it's/ only a matter of complexity." The 
phrase "a matter of complexity" may be more relevant 
to a discussion of erector sets and members of-the army 
engineer. corps as they repair .a bridge, but the child 
as a learner is not so easily dismissed by the gram- 
matic comparative. Humans are not component parts 
of systems, and they don't learn by the laws of 

input and output The yearn to learn can never be 

programmed with electronic precision or by any 
machine man will ever devise. A human being needs 
to be crackled by the electricity of another human. 
He needs to be energized by the totality of his sur- 
roundings. He must sense his finiteness in the vastness 
bf the universe, and he must wonder at intelligence, 
which is the glory of God. 6 

Recommended Reading 

Bettleheim, B. The Empty Fortress, The Free Press, 1967. 
Bruner, J. The Process of Education, Harvard, I960. 
Erikson, E. Childhood and Society, Norton, 1963. 
Gans, R. Common Settse in Teaching Reading, Bobbs-Merrill, 

1963.. _ j 

Getzels, J. and Phillip Jackson. Creativity and Intelligence, John 

Wiley, 1962. 
Hentoff, N. Our Children Are Dying, Viking, 1966. 
Holt, J. How Children Fail, Pitman, 1964. 
Hymas, J. Teaching the Child Under Six, Charles Merrill, 

1968. : 
Hymas, J. Understanding Your Child, Prentice-Hall, 1952. 
Koesthler, A. The- Art of Creation, Macmillan, 1964. 
LeShan, E. The Conspiracy Against Childhood, Atheneum, 

1968. 
Mallow, A. Toward a Psychology of. Being, Van Nostrand, 

1962/ _ • - 

Redl, F. When We Deal With Children, Basic Books, 1966. 
Reissman, D. Abundance for What? Doubleday, 1964. 
Wickes, F. The Inner World of Childhood (rev. ed.), Applc- 

ton-Century, 1930. 
Wickes, F. The Inner World of Choice,. Harper, 1963. 



When That Moment Comes... 
By Mabel Jones Gabbott 

When that moment comes that your child should say, 
"Listen, I'll read you, .,,"" Let's build it this wwy.",.'. 
Take it and hold it, sun-sweet and tvEole,\ 
Give to it credence, your- love, and your .laughter. 
Watch for the moment! You'll be glad ever after. 



12 



Improvement Era 







Business of 




<4J*i!^ 




By Dr. Harold Glen Clark 



/(lustrations- by Robert Reese 



Harold Glen Clark, dean of continuing education at 
Brigham Young University and a high councilor in the 
East Sharon Stake, has long been a promoter of "adven- 
tures in learning" for adult Latter-day Saints. 




• This year more thari fifty million American adults 
will go back to school for some kind of learning 
experience. Housewives, freed by the automatic 
Washer and other labor-saving devices, will make up 
a majority of those in this grand march of learners. 

All who return to schools will be interesting people. 
Many will be motivated by the high desire to battle 
back the frontier of ignorance and make the desert of 
their lives "blossom as a rose." There will also be the 
curious-minded, motivated by sheer wonder : at the 
great fields of knowledge that lie before them. 

As students, they will have these things in common: 
First, each will have an immediate learning appetite 
to quench or an immediate life problem to solve; sec- 
ond, each is voluntarily going back to school; and 
third, each brings , to the learning adventure a particu- 
lar adult background of experience. 

! They will be expectant learners, but they will not 
expect to receive their education wrapped in a sheep- 
skin at graduation. Freed from any lockstep of the 
typical credit system, they will have the great pleasure 
of discovery, of learning, of education as they go along. 

The unusual surge' toward lifelong learning is moti- 
vated in part by the great explosion of knowledge. 
Technological knowledge is being poured put so fast 
and so abundantly today that it is becoming difficult 



for one to stamp himself educated. ~ Many of the best 
theories are obsolete before the textbook is written, 
and plans have been outmoded before they come off 
the drawing board. This condition led Admiral Flyman 
G. Rickover to say, "Civilization has reached the point 
where the new frontier now lies in the mind itself. 
[Individuals] must conquer knowledge as formerly 
they conquered the' wilderness." 

What does all of this mean to adult Latter-dav Saint 
learners? ' 

Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints enjoy a great heritage in the^ exploring, 
discovering, adventuresome attitude exemplified by 
their Prophet and leader, Joseph Smith. The Lord 
instructed hinvand his associates very early in the his- 
tory of the Church to "teach one another the doctrine 
of the kingdom." He expected the membership to take 
the initiative in this business of learning, and to "teach 
one another"! It must have been an.expiting time for 
this young Prophet when he was- told by the Lord 
that if the members of the Church would teach one 
another diligently, His grace would attend them. The 
things they taught in the spirit of prayer and fasting 
were "all things that pertain unto the kingdom of 
God." Geology, history, music," languages, peoples, and 
cultures and ^"the perplexities of the nations" were 



Apri!1969 



13 




Adventures in Learning 




some of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God. 
{See D&C 88:77-80.) 

Through the School Of the Prophets and other 
means, the Saints gained wisdom by faith and by 
studying out of the best "books. These experiences 
.became -great adventures in learning, because the 
gospel of Jesus Christ had in it great concepts and 
ideas that illuminated what before had been only 
words. 

It is an adventure to discover and study ideas as a 
source of life and light, animating and illuminating 
words, emotions, people, and things. Ideas can be 
light and truth. And if they are light and truth, they 
are intelligence, which is the glory of God. No 
wonder, then, that Joseph Smith regarded true learn- 
ing as a great adventure and a main pursuit of life. 

One of the first exciting learning experiences of a 
Church member is the discovery that there is knowl- 
edge of good and evil in. the world. This opens the 
way to a lifetime adventure in application of his ideas 
about what is good and what is evil. 

What are the best books to read? Since error and 
truth are in the world, what, where, and which is the 
knowledge that damns and the knowledge that saves? 
How does one keep from "ever learning but never 
coming to the knowledge of the truth"? 

"A great part of the miseries of mankind," said 
President David O. McKay, "are brought upon them 
by false estimates they have made of the value of 
things." Learning, then, becomes the pursuit of 
values. There is excitement and joy when the learner 
discovers a great verity against which he can assess 
the concepts that lead to nowhere. With the great 
verities, he can set up precious guidelines. He cher- 
ishes truth. He understands more clearly the meaning 
of Robert Frost's statement that "most [or much] of 
the change we think we see in life is due to truths 
being in and out of favor." He sees learning as the 
process by which men decide what the great ideas 
and issues in their lives are, and how they will think 
about them. And this deciding is done in the market- 
place of ideas where the learner may choose good 
from evil. It is not known what each will choose. This 
uncertainty is a calculated risk taken by the Creator 
of man and his environment. In no other way can the 
learner be proven. In no other way can character be 
built except through great adventures in learning. 

A second great learning adventure is suggested in 
the doctrine expounded by Joseph Smith, that "what- 
ever principle of intelligence we attain unto [or make 
our own by study and application] in this life, it will 



rise with us in the resurrection." (D&C 130:18.) True 
learning is never in vain. 

The Lord expounds this doctrine further by saying 
that if through diligent study and obedience the 
learner gains more knowledge and intelligence in this 
life than another, he will have so much the advantage 
in the world to come. In other words, if he learns 
basic principles of knowledge and is intelligent enough 
to apply them in his life, he has a great advantage in 
point of usefulness, happiness, and joy in the world to 
come over the person who does not acquire knowledge 
and intelligence. 

"It is impossible," the Prophet said, "for a man to 
be saved in ignorance." (D&C 131:6.) The greatest 
ignorance is lack of knowledge of the saving princi- 
ples—principles that are true today, tomorrow, and 
always. Principles of intelligence once attained go 
with the learner into the eternities. Once the learner 
knows and lives up to the knowledge he has of such 
concepts as freedom, faith, baptism, obedience, sacri- 
fice, duty, authority, patience, marriage, covenants, 
the atonement of Christ, forgiveness, creation, love, 
and God, he is equipped with eternal principles of 
power. While the circumstances under which they 
may be applied are subject to change, the principles 
themselves are eternal open doors to things hidden 
or unknown. They cry out continually to the pos- 
sessor for application, reworking, combining, and re- 
arranging, thus making eternity and all things in it 
continually new and interesting. No wonder the Son 
of God said that eye has not seen nor ear heard the 
things that God has prepared for those who learn 
enough about him to love him and keep his com- 
mandments. 

This teaches us that it is not enough to learn the 
principle. Principles must forever be applied to the 
moving circumstances of eternity. One writer has 
said, "It is not enough to be on the right track— you 
will get run over if you just sit there." Adventures in 
learning never end when great principles must be 
applied progressively in new circumstances. The 
learner is always learning line upon line and precept 
upon precept, here a little and there a little. There 
can be no such thing as a dull Latter-day ;Saint if 
each one will spend time and eternity^ in the great 
adventure of turning knowledge into wisdom and in- 
creased understanding. 

One of the greatest thrills the humble, faithful 
Latter-day Saint learner may experience is in know- 
ing that he is not limited to his^own learning resources. 
Indeed, there are essential things he may never know 



14 



Improvement Era 



if restricted to his own powers of study and research. 
He must add to these faith in God the Eternal Father 
and his Son Jesus Christ. Faith is a form of learning. 
This method was set up by the Lord himself, working 
by and through a powerful teacher and member of the 
Godhead \known as the Holy Ghost. "And by the 
power of the Holy Ghost ye may know the truth of 
all things," said Moroni. (Moro. 10:5.) The power of 
this Holy Teacher comes through faith and good 
works and the laying on of hands by those in author- 
ity. The Holy Ghost may be a constant companion 
and teacher to every member of the Church. The 
learner does not direct the Holy Ghost, but through 
humility and lowliness of heart he may be directed 
by the Holy Ghost. 

Through the Holy Ghost one may learn the place 
of his own efforts and the place of the Holy Ghost 
in the learning process. This is one of the greatest 
of all adventures in learning, and creates the highest 
motivation to learn. Through the Holy Ghost the 
Latter-day * Saint learner achieves the following 
balance: 

"He who follows science— alone, comes to a barrier 
beyond which he cannot see. He who would tell us 
with the authority of scholarship a complete story 
of why we exist, of our mission here, has a duty to 
speak convincingly in a world where men increasingly 
think for themselves. Exhortation needs to be revised, 
not to weaken its power but to increase it, for men 
who are no longer in the 3d century. As this occurs, 
and on the essential and central core of faith, science 
will of necessity be silent. 

"But its silence will be the silence of humility, not 
the silence of disdain. A belief may be larger than a 
fact. A faith that is overdefined is the very faith most 



likely to prove inadequate to the great moments of 
life. . . . Young men who will formulate the deep 
thought of the next generation, should lean on science, 
for it can teach much and it can inspire. But they 
should not lean where it does not apply." (Dr. Van- 
nevar Bush, "Science Pauses," Fortune, May 1965. ) 

The Holy Ghost gives direction, purpose, and bal- 
ance to adventures in learning. Much that is taught 
worldwide in continuing education gives the impres- 
sion that, belief in God and the so-called verities of 
life stultifies and stagnates the free mind. Discussion 
and prognostication are favorite tools, but learners 
too often suffer from "the paralysis of analysis." And 
too much that is taught in continuing education 
amounts to continuing uncertainty and elusivehess, as 
if these were the acceptable approaches to great ad- 
ventures in learning. 

But how rewarding is the spirit of the Holy Ghost 
as a teacher, confirming, illuminating, and making 
plain where the feeble torch of man's knowledge can- 
not throw its light. What scholars, statesmen, poets, 
and prophets, should arise from great adventures in 
learning through individual effort combined With the 
power of the Holy Ghost! 

The Lord promised the Prophet Joseph Smith that 
he would give the true learners in the Church, by the 
gift of the Holy Ghost, knowledge that has not been 
revealed "since the world was until now." He said 
further that men might as well try "to stop the Mis- 
souri river in its decreed course, ... as to hinder the 
Almighty from pouring down knowledge from heaven 
upon the heads of the Latter-day Saints." (D&G 121: 
26,33.) 

Great adventures in learning await the Latter-day 
Saint who truly wants to learn. o 



Friendship 
By Mary Imogene Harris 



Friendship can be a flame; 
As the sun strikes downward 

to warm the earth, 
Friendship, too, can flow inward 

to warm the human heart. 

Friendship can be a rhythm; 
As each instrument .must tune 

itself to blend in melodious 

pitch, 
Friendship, too, can find a way 

to live in perfect harmony. 



Friendship can be a growth; 
As each flower must find its way 

to sunlight through the sod, 

Friendship, too, can be nurtured 

, to fulfill a deepest human 

need. 

Friendship can be a sparkle; 
As love in the purest sense 

can be a bubble in the stream 

of life, 
Friendship, too, can be a thing of 



joy that rises and almost over- 
flows. 

Friendship can be an unblem- 
ished emotion; 

As the man from Galilee showM 
how friendship in the purest 
form can be, 

Friendship, too, 
can be with us 

as the deepest regard of man 
for his brother. 



April 1969 



15 






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IB ■'■■■"■"■,■'■■-.■ 




* 




• • You will confine 
yourself to giv- 
ing reasons why 
your rival would 
not be suitable 
as a junior ex- 
ecutive. . " 



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iPhato by E/don L/nschoten 
|Co//age by Virginia Newman 
I Posed by Joseph A. Kjar 



PT?PQ 




NAL 



APPPATQAT 

• Smoothly, silently, the elevator door glided open. Bob Bridges drew a hand across his red hair, took a 
deep breath, and began walking down the eighth-floor corridor. 

For an instant the college senior halted outside the double glass doors of T. J. Rayfieid & Company. 
He buttoned the jacket of his neat gray suit. Then, just as before, with a kind of nervous excitement, Bob 
entered the corporation's chrome-and-glass-dominated executive offices. 

No, things were not quite the same. The big reception room, minus all those other applicants, looked 

different. This time, the only person in sight was his friend Larry Clawson. 

Larry's dark eyes looked up. "Hi, Bob." 
"'Morning, Larry. Big day." 
Larry sighed. "Last lap, I guess. Good luck." 
Bob crossed the room and impulsively thrust out 
his hand. "The same to you, fella." 

The same pretty blonde secretary, with the same 
(or a reasonable facsimile) warm, friendly smile, 
came to greet them— except now she was saying some- 
thing about a time limit of five minutes. 
"You're kidding," Larry scoffed. 
"Five minutes!" Bob gasped. "Do you mean to say 
Mr. Rayfieid intends to give us just jive minutes 
apiece?" 

The secretary's smile persisted. "Mr. Rayfieid has 
an exceptionally full schedule this morning." 

Larry worked his jaws. "B-but there must be some 



Roger Winship Stuart is a prominent American free- 
lance writer and author and was formerly the Washing- 
ton, D.C., correspondent for the New York World- 
Telegram and Sun. 



17 



mistake, Miss Marsh. I understood this was to be the you two. We're about ready to make a final de- 
final interview." cision. But first, I'm asking you to do something 

"You understood correctly. Please, Mr. Bridges, that could well be the most difficult test of all." 

do sit down. Mr. Rayfield will be with you shortly. Despite his curiosity, Bob waited, saying nothing. 

As for the time limit, he thinks five minutes will be "I'll give you the assignment in a moment," the pros- 

quite sufficient." pective employer went on. "Meanwhile, in case you 

Miss Marsh excused herself and withdrew, leaving are the one we choose, you ought to know how the 

the two college friends staring incredulously at company feels about certain matters." 

each other. Bob nodded, and the industrialist rose to his feet 

Bob slumped down in a chair. What sort of guy, and began to pace the floor, 

he wondered, was this fabulous T. J. R.? So he had "It's commonplace," he said, talking as he walked, 

built up a thriving business, mainly on the basis of "to say we're in a new age, a revolutionary era. Times 

his Rayfield Compact Computer, as near perfect a have changed. Methods are being radically improved, 

piece of equipment, supposedly, as anything the age You might be surprised to know, for instance, how 

of automation had yet produced. So what! If he much we relied on computers in evaluating all of the 

thought— applicants." 

Larry's voice broke in. "How do you figure he The pacing halted. From a distance of three or 

imagines either one of us— or anybody, for that matter four yards, Mr. Rayfield declared, "But not every- 

—could sell himself in five lousy minutes?" thing's changed. Basic values remain. Oh, I know, 

Bob shook his head. "Makes no sense to me." we hear a lot today about cutthroat business prac- 

"Why did he bother to have us come in at all?" tices, betrayed confidences, industrial espionage— 

"Exactly. If he's that pressed for time, wouldn't you among other things. And that may be one side of 

think he'd simply skip this so-called 'final interview'?" the picture. But it's only one side." 

Larry opened his mouth, then snapped it shut. Miss He's an intelligent guy, Bob was thinking. He 

Marsh and her smile were back again. didn't call me in here just for the fun of it— or to audit 

"Mr. Rayfield will see you now." She looked at a five-minute speech. What is he leading up to? 

Bob. "You first, Mr. Bridges." Aloud, the senior said, "I've talked with some busi- 

The rugged industrialist— a square-jawed 50-year-old nessmen who are a lot more cynical than you, sir." 

who seemed scarcely 40— exuded energy and confi- "Cynical?" Mr. Rayfield's eyes flashed. "I'm sure 

dence. He wasted no time. What took place, you have, Bob. So have I." 

though, bore little resemblance to the usual inter- The pacing resumed. "At any rate, I still believe 
view. It was nine-tenths monologue. in old-fashioned loyalty and reliability. I am con- 
Already standing when the door to his private office vinced that some men can be trusted. There is still 
opened, Mr. Rayfield came forward, hand out- integrity in this world, if you can find it— and it has 
stretched. "Glad to see you again, Bob." His grip was to be found, for it is essential to the proper function- 
reassuringly firm. "Sit right here." ing of industry." 

He moved lightly, with amazing swiftness for so Bob, though listening attentively, thought, He's us- 

large a man, to his own leather chair behind the mas- ing up those precious five minutes. Then what ivill 

sive desk. There was no evidence of relaxation in he do? 

his posture. He sat erect, his keen eyes almost "That old saying, honestij pays, isn't as out of date 

piercing. as some think. Why do you suppose this company 

"It's been quite a gauntlet you've run— you and is always on the lookout for trustworthy men? Be- 

Larry Clawson." cause we need them. Employees can be taught new 

Bob smiled wryly. methods, faster and more efficient ways to solve 

"Yes, quite a gauntlet. When we started out to find problems. But character is something else." 

a young man to train for this junior executive post, With a quick glance at his watch, the industrialist 

there were 49 applicants. Of course, the first 20 were returned to his chair. Equally as abrupt was his 

eliminated in rather short order. I must say I'm change of subject. 

pleased with the way you and Larry have come "Now, Bob, in your application and in your tests 

through our barrage of tests, interviews, and investi- you have given us considerable information about 

gations." yourself. You've supplied good reasons why the com- 

Glancing at a paper on his desk, Mr. Rayfield con- pany might profitably hire you. Larry Clawson, 

tinued without pause, "It's narrowed down now to naturally, has done the same thing. 



18 Improvement Era 



"At this point we want you to tackle something 
quite different: we want your personal appraisal of 
Larry." 

"Of Larry?" Bob gasped. 

"Right. But it is to be an appraisal in negative 
terms. You will confine yourself to giving reasons 
why your rival would not be suitable as a junior 
executive of T. J. Ray field & Company." 

Bob's jaw dropped. He stared. "Hold on a min- 
ute. What you ask—" 

"It's a tough assignment, I know," Mr. Rayfield 
broke in. "But please don't think this is a one-sided 
proposition, I will have Larry in here shortly, and 
he will be given the same assignment with respect 
to you." 

Bob shook his head. But the older man, raising a 
hand, went on, "I understand you two are long-time 
friends. You know each other's faults and weak points. 
Tell us about them— not that we'll necessarily be 
guided by what you say, but the appraisal at least 
will give us another look at you and your ability to 
size up a man's potential." 

Bob's frown deepened. "May I ask a question?" 

"I'm afraid not. Time's up." The industrialist rose. 
"I'll show you to another room, where you can write. 
You'll be allowed 15 minutes. If you finish sooner, 
please remain there until I send for your paper." 

In the little room to which he was ushered, Bob 
spent the first couple of minutes pacing the floor, 
muttering to himself. So this was how the company 
chose to conclude its famous "weeding-out" process! 
He didn't like it. Had T. J. Rayfield's talk about old- 
fashioned loyalty and integrity been just talk? So it 
seemed. 

Pausing before a window, he could see, far across 
town, several of the college buildings. Alumni Chapel's 
tall spire crowned the hill. Below, the white-pillared 
front of Kenyon Hall showed plainly. And edging 
out from a clump of trees was a portion of the Business 
Administration Building. 

Business administration meant Professor Delby. In 
his mind's eye, Bob saw him too— bushy gray hair and 
all. The veteran professor was more than just another 
member of the faculty. Never aloof, never too busy to 
hear a fellow's woes or to offer a hand in solving a 
problem— academic or personal— he was counselor, 
guide, and friend. 

Wait until I tell Prof about this. Will he ever have 
to revise his estimate of the great T. }. R.! 

Professor Delby was the one who had started the 
ball rolling on this competitive project for both Bob 
and Larry. Not only had he placed their names at 
the head of his list of prospects; he had also made it his 




'■'•': . . it will give us 

another look at you 

and your ability 

to size up 

a man's potential" 



business to convince each of them that the chance 
to compete for a post-graduation opening with the 
Rayfield organization was well worth pursuing. 

"Opportunity of a lifetime," he had called it. And 
no one could have watched the progress of these two 
through the interviews with keener interest than the 
veteran professor. Helpful to both, he had favored 
neither, hoping only that one or the other of "Delby's 
boys" might emerge as the ultimate winner. 

Sighing, Bob turned from the window and walked 
over to the desk, which was bare except for some 
sheets of paper and two needle-sharp yellow pencils. 
Seated, he took out his own ballpoint pen and scowl- 
ingly commenced to doodle. 

To lose out at this stage will be rough, he told him- 
self. Until now, I didn't realize how much I wanted 
to win. Ah, well, there's some consolation knowing 
I'll have lost to the best man of the lot. Good old 
Larry. How it will grind him to learn he must tear 
me apart for the edification of T. }. R.! 

Bob tore his doodle-filled sheet from the pad. 
Crumpling it, he tossed the wad of paper into a 
wastebasket. At last, he settled down to write. 

The pretty blonde secretary with the durable smile 
came to pick up his appraisal, and Bob shortly found 
himself once more being escorted into the spacious 
private office of Mr. Rayfield. 

At almost precisely the same moment, Larry Claw- 
son entered. Neither one spoke, but for a brief in- 
stant their eyes met. Then Larry came across the 
room to take a seat beside his rival on the long leather 
sofa. 

Meanwhile, at the massive desk, Mr. Rayfield 
seemed to be absorbed with paper work. Bob won- 
dered why he had bothered to summon both of them. 
Why wouldn't it have been sufficient to notify the 
winner, and let the other quietly go his way? 

"I think it would be well," said the industrialist, 
looking up without expression, "to read these aloud. 

(Continued on page 23) 



April 1969 



19 



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Improvement Era 



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22 



Improvement Era 



I'll read the shorter appraisal first." 

Bob stirred uneasily, and a deep flush invaded his 
cheeks, as he listened to the sound of the words he 
had just written: 

"I have been asked to prepare a negative' appraisal 
of Larry Clawson, who, like myself, is a candidate for 
employment with T. J. Rayfield & Company. 

"If the request had covered Larry's positive quali- 
ties, it would be a pleasure to comply, for, through long 
acquaintance, I have learned to know him well, to 
appreciate his many virtues and talents, and to ad- 
mire his character. 

"We happen to be competing for the same job. 
But Larry and I are not mere acquaintances. We are 
friends. As his friend, I could not possibly attempt 
to supply a list of Larry's 'negative' qualities. 

"I am aware that, by failing to carry out the assign- 
ment, I shall have eliminated myself from further 
consideration for the post. This I sincerely regret. 
But my regret would be much greater if I were to win 
knowing that success had been based in the slightest 
degree on any statement of mine which could be 
construed as derogatory of a friend." 

Dropping the paper on his desk, Mr. Rayfield re- 
marked dryly, "That's that. It is signed, 'Respectfully 
submitted, Robert Bridges.' " 

A wave of silence flooded the office. The industrial- 
ist took up the second paper. "Now," he said, "listen 
to this one. The remarkable thing about it . . . well, 
that will be self-evident when you hear it." 

Once more he read aloud. The "remarkable" aspect 
of Larry Clawson's contribution was, indeed, almost 
immediately apparent: Save in its somewhat different 



phraseology, it practically duplicated the other. 

Both writers had rejected the assignment. Their 
expressed reasons were the same, and each had 
acknowledged the fact— as he saw it— that failure to 
list his competitor's "negative" qualities automatically 
eliminated the writer as a candidate. 

"Anyone who didn't know how well separated we 
kept you two," said Mr. Rayfield, smiling faintly, 
"might think you had worked these out together. 

"In one respect," he continued thoughtfully, "you 
both made the wrong assumption— your belief that 
failure to 'downgrade' the other fellow would result 
in your disqualification. As a matter of fact, I hold 
to the view that no man may safely be considered loyal, 
where the organization is concerned, if in a pinch he 
cannot be trusted to stand by a friend." 

Pausing deliberately, the industrialist stood up. 

"The very fact that each of you refused to sell your 
own friend short to advance your competitive stand- 
ing," he concluded, "solidifies my belief that the 
company would do well to offer junior executive posts 
to you both." 

Later, as the two executives-to-be were leaving, Mr. 
Rayfield remarked, "You know, it wouldn't have sur- 
prised me if you fellows had decided to wind up your 
papers with that quote Prof Delby is always spouting: 
When Zeno was asked what a friend was, he replied, 
'Another I.' " 

Bob and Larry exchanged surprised glances, and 
Bob said, "I didn't realize you knew about that, sir." 

"But of course," laughed the middle-aged industrial- 
ist. "You see, once upon a time I, too, was one of 
'Delby 's boys.' " • o 



/ understood 

That somewhere, sometime there could be found 

A path on which in measured steps 

The human soul could upward climb 

And find again its home. 



My Quest 
By William T. Sykes 



/ searched 

In written words from pens of gifted men, 

And human logic often led 

Where paths wiere blurred, 

And left me questing still. 



I prayed, 

And in the quiet of an eventime, 

When peaceful silence held my humbled heart within its folds, 

I heard the answer so long sought, 

And knew at last the secret path 

That leads from me to God. 



April 1969 



23 





^r^7 

MEICHIZEDEK WL 
PRIESTHOOD^" 

Guidelines on how 
to do a better job 
in your position- 
and enjoy doing it. 



• Church delegation, 
through and by the 
authority of the holy 
priesthood of God, is 
becoming more and 
more important as the 
Church grows in total 
membership and re- 
gional distribution. In 
fact, it is imperative for 
continued success. As 
the characteristics of 
our Church membership 

distribution change, there is increasing need for lead- 
ership training and the wise delegation of responsi- 
bility. 

In the past decade the Melchizedek Priesthood has 
increased 57 percent, from 186,000 to 292,000 mem- what were ye ordained? 




(P-t DHOW tO 



Elder Ezra Taft Benson 



Christ." (Eph. 4:11-13.) 
This is our task and 
responsibility, and it is 
to be done through and 
under the direction of 
the priesthood. There 
must be no force, coer- 
cion, or intimidation in 
our delegation. To be 
effective, we must seek 
and obtain the Spirit. 
Without the Spirit we 
flounder, unsure of our 
decisions and counsel. Wise delegation requires the 
same spirit that is required to preach the gospel. The 
Lord said: 

"Wherefore, I the Lord ask you this question— unto 



bers, and the Aaronic Priesthood has increased by 80 
percent, from 170,000 to 306,000. Surely with this 
great growth the Church faces the future unafraid 
because it is divine. 

We are engaged in the greatest work in all the 
world: the saving and exaltation of our Father's chil- 
dren. We are the custodians of the truth, the saving 
principles that, when applied, will build, save, and 
exalt men. 

The Lord has given us broad organization outlines, 



"To preach my gospel by the Spirit, even the Com- 
forter which was sent forth to teach the truth. . . . 

"Therefore, why is it that ye cannot understand 
and know, that he that receiveth the word by the 
Spirit of truth receiveth it as it is preached by the Spirit 
of truth? 

"Wherefore, he that preacheth and he that receiveth, 
understand one another, and both are edified and re- 
joice together. . . . 

"That which is of God is light; and he that receiveth 



purposes, and objectives, but he leaves to us much of light, and continueth in God, receiveth more light; 
the working out of methods. This is where correlation and that light groweth brighter and brighter until the 



and leadership training come in, and why such seg- 
ments of the program as wise delegation of responsi- 
bility are under study. 

The Apostle Paul wrote: 

"And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; 
and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; 

"For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of 
the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ: 

"Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of 
the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, 
unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of 



perfect day." (D&C 50:13-14, 21-22, 24.) 

Wise delegation also requires prayerful preparation, 
as do effective teaching and preaching. "And the 
Spirit shall be given unto you by the prayer of faith; 
and if ye receive not the Spirit ye shall not teach." 
(D&C 42:14.) And, we might add, ye shall not dele- 
gate without the Spirit. 

In this same spirit we may seek help from the good 
and wise men of the earth. Much has been done 
outside Church organization in the area of managing 
the services of men— delegation and responsibility— 




24 



Improvement Era 



Delegate Wisely 



By Elder Ezra Taft Benson 

Of the Council of the Twelve 



that may be helpful. Many of these tried and tested 
procedures, approaches, and principles, when used in 
company with the Spirit, can be helpful. Here are a 
few examples: 

1. Good management means delegating authority. 

2. Delegating part of the work load helps you and 
your organization. 

3. Effective management is the art of multiplying 
yourself through others. 

4. The jobs to delegate are the ones you do best. 

5. The number of subordinates who can report 
directly to one supervisor is limited, because of time, 
distance, human limitations, and type of work. 

6. Authority and responsibility may be delegated. 
Accountability may not be delegated. 

7. The most eligible candidate for a bigger job is 
the man who has already trained his own replacement. 

8. Why delegation goes wrong: failing to delegate 
enough, delegating by formula, failing to keep com- 
munication lines open, failing to define the assign- 
ment, failing to make 

the assignment stick, 
failing to delegate 
enough authority to do 
the job, being too nar- 
row in your delegation, 
failing to allow for mis- 
takes. 

These are but a few 
guidelines from Ameri- 
can business and in- 
dustry. More and more, experience proves that the 
spirit of the Golden Rule— the spirit of the gospel- 
succeeds in wise delegating in the Church and else- 
where. 

In the Church especially, asking produces better 
results than ordering— and better feeling, too. Re- 
member to tell why. Follow up to see how things 
are going. Show appreciation where people carry 
out instructions well. Express confidence where it can 
be done honestly. When an order gets fouled up, it 




Illustrated by Ted Nagata 



is well to check back and find out where you slipped— 
and don't be afraid to admit you did. Remember, 
our people are voluntary, free-will workers. They 
'also love the Lord and his work. Love them. Appre- 
ciate them. When you're tempted to reprimand a 
fellow worker, don't. Try an interesting challenge and 
a pat on the back instead. Remember, our Father's 
children throughout the world are essentially good. 
He loves them. We should love them too. 

Why do people fail to delegate? There are a num- 
ber of reasons. Here are some: 

1. They feel the subordinate won't be able to 
handle the assignment. 

2. They fear competition from subordinates. 

3. They are afraid of losing credit or recognition. 

4. They are afraid their weaknesses will be ex- 
posed. 

5. They feel they will not have the time to turn 
over the work and provide the necessary training. It 
takes time to delegate wisely, but it also saves time, 

builds people, and in- 
creases output. 

At the time of delega- 
tion there is usually ex- 
cellent opportunity to 
get close to people— to 
build them up and give 
them needed counsel 
and direction. 

My son Mark, who 
has responsibility as 
sales manager for the direction of 4,000 salesmen who 
do direct selling, sent me this list of six principles 
for delegating responsibility: 

1. Select the jobs to be delegated and get them 
organized for the person to be assigned. 

2. Pick the proper person for the job. 

3. Prepare and motivate the delegate for his assign- 
ment. 

4. Assign the work and make sure it is fully under- 
stood. 




April 1969 



25 



5. Encourage independence. 

6. Maintain supervisory control— never relinquish 
the reins. 

More important than all worldly knowledge, helpful 
though it may be, is the example and direction found in 
holy writ— in the great plan of a loving Father for us, 
his children. There are many impressive examples. 

The very foundations of the world were laid by 
delegated authority. Jesus reminded people many 
times that his mission on earth was one through 
delegated authority. In speaking in the synagogue, 
he told them that he had been delegated by his Father: 
"For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own 
will, but the will of him that sent me." (John 6:38.) 

In the opening lines of the gospel of John, the 
writer noted that at the very beginning of the foun- 
dations of the earth, Jesus acted as a divine son 
delegated by the Father: "In the beginning was the 
Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word 
was God. 

"The same was in the beginning with God 
"All things were made by him; and 
without him was not anything made 
that was made." ( John 1 : 1-3. ) 

Christ also revealed that judgment 
had been committed to him by the 
Father: 

"For the Father judgeth no man, but 
hath committed all judgment unto the 
Son: That all men should honour the 
Son, even as they honour the Father. 




Ke that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the 
Father which hath sent him." (John 5:22-23. ) 

On four occasions the Father introduced Jesus as one 
who had been delegated, and as his beloved Son: 

1. When Jesus was baptized of John the Baptist, 
a voice from heaven spoke out: "This is my beloved 
Son, in whom I am well pleased." (Matt. 3:17. ) 

2. At the transfiguration, a voice proclaimed to 
Peter, James, and John: "This is my beloved Son, in 
whom I am well pleased; hear ye him." (Matt. 17:5.) 

3. When Jesus first appeared to the Nephites, a voice 
was heard saying: "Behold my Beloved Son, in whom 
I am well pleased, in whom I have glorified my name- 
hear ye him." (3 Ne. 11:7.) 

4. Almost the same words were spoken when two 
heavenly personages appeared to the boy Joseph Smith 
in that first vision which began the restoration of the 
Church. "This is My Beloved Son. Hear Him!" (Joseph 
Smith 2:17.) 

In each instance, the Father indicated that Jesus had 
been delegated. He had been dele- 
gated not only to preside over the 
world but also to redeem it. 

Three years after the first vision of 
Joseph Smith, Moroni appeared. Later 
other important messengers came with 
essential keys, including John the Bap- 
tist and Peter, James, and John, all 
delegated appropriately for their im- 
portant work. 

(To be continued) 



Illustrated by D le Kilbourn 



The Easter Miracle By Bertha A. Kleinman 

From out of the depths of chasm and abyss, above 

the gloom of sepulchre and death, 
From crucible of bygone dynasties, the morning 

rides her orbit of routine 
And ushers in the Eastertide anew. 
From rugged rim,, behold time's vestibule, as, 

bridging eons and eternities, 
The shrine of ages rears her pinnacles in ritual 

before the morning star! 
Erstwhile the river carves her turgid way, her 

wanton rapids thirsting for the sea; 
Erstwhile the sunrise bursts in lavish flame to 

lave the ivorld in regal pageantry. 

Let acclamation ring from rim to rim: let adora- 
tion answer from the skies: 



There is no death! The majesty of sleep is but an 

interlude the spheres between, 
And, as the lilies open to the dawn, so homing 

souls shall rise to answer Him 
Whose hands shall heal the bruise of battle scars, 

and bind the stricken hearts that anguish on, 
Distilling mercy and benevolence as gracious rain 

distills upon the lea. 

We face the dawn; we stand on holy ground, and 

these the priests and these the priestesses, 
Who serve the altars of humanity, as surest refuge 

where their God may be. 
Thus in thy handiwork, Thou Supreme, the 

Easter miracle translates anew, 
And this her oracle — the faith of men that lives 

rekindled till He comes again! 



26 



Improvement Era 



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27 




Moses Calls Aaron to the Ministry ByHanyAnderson 



28 



Improvement Era 













: ?fts- 




Richard J. Marshall, vice presi- 
dent of an advertising and pub- 
lic relations firm in Salt Lake 
City, serves on the Church's 
Adult Correlation Committee. 



And no man taketh this honour unto himself, 
but he that is called of God, as was Aaron." {Hebrews 



The Painting 

of Moses and Aaron 

By Richard J. Marshall 

• Another painting in the series 
of great moments in religious 
history has recently been com- 
pleted for display, duplication, 
and use throughout the Church. 
The new illustration, painted by 
the American illustrator Harry 
Anderson, crystallizes for the 
viewer another important mo- 
ment in biblical history, reveal- 
ing the artist's concept of that 
sacred occasion when Moses, 
commanded by God, laid hands 
on his older brother Aaron and 
called him to minister in the 
priest's office in the sacred duties 
within the tabernacle. The paint- 
ing is merely an illustration de- 
picting the facts that men were 
called of God by prophets an- 
ciently, and authority was con- 
ferred by the laying on of hands, 
an ordinance that Aaron probab- 
ly experienced several times un- 
der the hands of his brother 
Moses. 

Careful biblical research went 
into the painting of this scene, 
which shows these two Levite 
brothers in the courtyard of the 
tabernacle on a sun-drenched 
day typical of those experienced 
during their 40 years of wilder- 
ness wanderings. The courtyard, 
which surrounded the tabernacle 

Moses had been commanded to 
(Continued on page 31) 



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April 1969 



29 




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Improvement Era 



build, was insulated from the 
outside world by "hangings . . . 
of fine twined linen of an hun- 
dred cubits long for one side." 
( Exod. 27:9. ) Standing shoulder- 
to-shoulder at the outer edge of 
the courtyard can be seen male 
members of the tribe of Levi, 
some of them carrying the tradi- 
tional trumpets of burnished 
metal. 

Moses had been commanded 
to "take thou unto thee Aaron 
thy brother, and his sons with 
him . . . that he may minister 
unto me in the priest's office. 
■'. . ." (Exod. 28:1.) Two of 
Aaron's four sons stand at the 
entrance to the tabernacle look- 
ing on as Moses commences to 
bless and confer authority upon 
their father. 

While Aaron's clothing in the 
painting may seem rather curious 
and contrived, actually it has 
been painstakingly painted from 
the exacting descriptions found 
in the Book of Exodus, for the 
Lord declared that Aaron should 
wear holy garments "for glory 
and for beauty . . . that he may 
minister unto me in the priest's 
office." (Exod. 28:2-3.) These 
revelations placed great stress 
on each article of clothing, which 
included a breastplate made of 
gold with blue, purple, and 
scarlet linen and set with four 
rows of precious stones, each in- 
scribed with the name of one 
of the Twelve Tribes. There 
were two other stones, one on 
each shoulder of the ephod or 
upper garment, which also car- 
ried the names of the children 
of Israel— six names on each 
stone. These were connected to 
the breastplate by two chains of 
pure gold. The Lord intended 
that all these things be done with 
"cunning work," describing the 
length and breadth of the set- 
tings as well as the kinds of 



stones; i.e., "And the second row 
shall be an emerald, a sapphire, 
and a diamond. And the third 
row a ligure, an agate, and an 
amethyst." (See Exod. 28:15, 18- 
19. ) Also in the breastplate but 
not visible to observers was the 
sacred Urim and Thummim, that 
Aaron might be mindful that he 
"shall bear the judgment of 
Israel upon his heart. . . ." 
(Exod. 28:30.) 

Other articles of clothing— the 
robe, the girdle, the cap or miter 
with its inscription, "holiness to 
the Lord" (Exod. 28:36) -have 
been painted in detail, even to 
the golden bells and pome- 
granates that fringe the brilliant 
multicolored robe. 

Much of the representation for 
these sacred garments was 
gleaned by research at the He- 
brew Museum in New York City, 
where the ancient traditions of 
the Jews have been carefully 
preserved. 

Sunlight dances on the pol- 
ished copper laver that stands 
upon a base of brass between the 
altar and the door of the taber- 
nacle. The priests, Aaron, his 
sons, and others of the Tribe of 
Levi wash their hands and feet 
in the laver before ministering 
at the altar or before entering the 
sanctuary of the tabernacle. 
This ceremony, according to the 
Jewish traditionalists, symbol- 
ized the holiness that is required 
to the service of God in the 
tabernacle. 

When Moses was ready to 
have the laver created, it was 
made from the brass and copper 
mirrors used by the women of 
Israel and contributed by them 
for this sacred vessel. Like 
Aaron's garments, the design for 
the laver was taken from scrip- 
ture and from references in the 
Hebrew Museum. The base held 
water for foot washings, while 



n the breastplate 

but not visible 

to observers 

was the sacred 

Urim and 

Thummim. . ." 



the body of the laver was used 
for the hands. 

The tabernacle had two altars : 
the altar of incense, which stood 
in the Holy Place before the veil 
inside the tabernacle, and the 
brazen altar of burnt offering, 
which stood in this outer court. 
Made of acacia wood overlaid 
with brass, the bronze altar was 
furnished with rings and stays, 
distinctly defined in the scrip- 
tures. It has been told and retold 
in Jewish lore that the position 
of this outside altar was im- 
portant. It stood at the very 
threshold of the sacred taber- 
nacle, teaching distinctly that 
"man has no access to Jehovah 
except through sacrifice." These 
great metal objects— the laver 
and the altar of burnt offering— 
as well as the cumbersome taber- 
nacle and the outer wall, which 
were carried through the wilder- 
ness day after day, only to be 
set up and taken down again, are 
powerful visual evidences of the 
burgeoning faith and discipline 
of Israel under Moses' firm 
authority. 

It is hoped that the painting 
will be a useful tool for the in- 
struction of our youth, reinforce- 
ment for those who know the 
meaning of the story, and a lever 
to open the mind and heart of 
all viewers who desire to know 
more of God's priesthood and 
kingdom. o 



April 1969 



31 



I 



do not think we traveled one 
day from the Missouri river here, but 
what we looked for a track where the 
rails could be laid with success, for a 
railroad through this territory to go 
to the Pacific ocean. This was long 
before the gold was found, when the 
Territory belonged to Mexico. We never 
went through a canyon, or worked our 
way over the dividing ridges without 
asking where the rails could be laid; 
and I really did think that the railway 
would have been here long before this; 
and I do think it would if there had not 
been some little eruption [the Civil 
War]; but I do hope that now we will 
get it." (Descret News, June 17, 
1868.) 

So said President Brigham Young on 
June 10, 1868, speaking in Salt Lake 
City at a mass meeting concerning the 
railroad issue. 

The Utah territorial legislature peti- 
tioned Congress in 1852 and again in 
1854 for the construction of a railroad 
utilizing the central route to the Pacific 
coast and for the building of a tele- 
graph line. In February 1851 Thomas 
L. Kane of Pennsylvania, a great friend 



Lest We Forget 



Wedding 
of the Rails 



By Albert L. Zobell, Jr. 

Research Editor 

Below: Spike picked up at Promontory, Utah, 
after that section of road was abandoned. 




of Brigham Young and the Church, had 
advised his friends in America's "half- 
way house in the wilderness" to avoid 
the entanglements of the great contro- 
versy of the day — slavery — but to speak 
up and make their voices heard in such 
matters as land liberty, postal reform, 
Indian affairs, and the proposed rail- 
road to the Pacific. 

Residents of Salt Lake City had 
hoped that they would be on the rail- 
road route. When it developed that 
both the Union Pacific (building from 
the east) and the Central Pacific (from 
the west) were considering a route 
around the northern end of the Great 
Salt Lake, because it was shorter and 
had less desert and more grading facili- 
ties, the June 1868 mass meeting was 
held. Although the northern route was 
upheld, a branch line was eventually 
built to Salt Lake City. 

Brigham Young's first contact with 
the Union Pacific was probably with 
Samuel B. Reed, who made that com- 
pany's first surveys in the West in 
1864, and who had hired some Mor- 
mon men to assist him. There was 
some trouble with the men, and Reed 



1869. May 10th. 1869. 

GREATEVEMT 

Bail Road from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
eium onmwo 



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fCel? ?&E ARRIVAL 'OF tRAim EEOM THK K A*!;. 



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h. loss 1'xo.u Ft;ur Days, woMing the Bangers of ttes Sea! 



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PULLMAN'S PALACE SLEEPING CABS 



GOLD, SILVER AND OTHER MINERS! 



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took the matter to President Young. 
In a letter to his wife, Reed recorded 
that President Young sent "a severe 
letter to the boys, bidding them com- 
plete all work I have for them to do 
before showing themselves in Salt Lake 
City, since which I have not heard a 
word about pay." 

As the railroad approached, Brigham 
Young took a contract for the grading 
of the Union Pacific through the can- 
yons east of Ogden. His principal sub- 
contractors were his son, Joseph A. 
Young, and Bishop John Sharp. Hun- 
dreds of men were employed. As they 
worked they sang: 

"At the head of great Echo, there's a 
railroad begun, 

And the Mormons are cutting and grad- 
ing like fun; 

They say they'll stick to it until it's 
complete, 

For friends and relations are longing 
to me^et. 

"Hurrah! Hurrah! the railroad's begun, 
Three cheers for our contractor, his 

name's Brigham Young; 
Hurrah! Hurrah! We're honest and true; 
And if we stick to it, it's bound to go 

through. . . ." 

East of the territory of President 
Young's contract was that of the con- 
tract of Joseph F. Nounnan and Com- 
pany — "Gentile" Salt Lake City bankers. 

Leland Stanford, president of the 
Central Pacific and former governor of 
California, awarded the grading con- 
tract for his railroad to Mayor Lorin 
Farr of Ogden, who was joined by Elder 
Ezra T. Benson of the Council of the 
Twelve and Bishop Chauncey W. West. 
They built the grade of that road from 
Humboldt Wells, Nevada, eastward to 
Ogden, a distance of two hundred miles. 

Construction on the Salt Lake Tem- 
ple and other buildings in the territory 
ceased as men answered the call of 
the grading contractors. At the Echo 
Canyon camps were men from nearly 
every Mormon settlement — recruited by 



Improvement Era 



f B e Bare th ey Read v ia Platte Valley o* Omaha 



ward bishops who came along to work 
with their men. So effectively was this 
call for graders answered that the Union 
Pacific surveying crews ran behind 
schedule, and the graders sometimes 
complained because of no work. 

The building of the transcontinental 
railroad was a formidable task. Central 
Pacific had to ship all their equipment, 
tools, rolling stock, rails, bolts, and 
fishplates by sea from the Atlantic 
coast, around Cape Horn or across the 
Isthmus of Panama, to San Francisco 
Bay. Until the completion of the Chicago 
and North Western Railroad to Council 
Bluffs, Iowa, in November 1867, Union 
Pacific drew its entire stock of materials 
and supplies from Missouri River steam- 
ers. Even the ties (which Central Pacific 
obtained in great quantities from the 
Sierras) had to be brought by Union 
Pacific until the line reached the Black 
Hills of Wyoming and Utah's Wasatch 
Mountains. 

During the first years, scarcity of 
labor had delayed construction. At the 
end of the Civil War, Union Pacific 
found its labor supply in the former 
soldiers and also used many Irish immi- 
grants. Central Pacific had labor diffi- 
culties that were not solved with the 
war's end. Railroad wages could not 
tempt men from California's mines or 
the promises of striking it rich. In 
desperation, Charles Crocker, construc- 
tion boss, imported Chinese laborers.* 

Grading and construction moved for- 
ward with the help of tons of black 
powder and some nitroglycerine. In the 
beginning Central Pacific had been 
bottled up in the Sierra Mountains while 
Union Pacific had comparatively easy 



*This writer's grandfather Hans, to earn 
funds to emigrate his Danish mother-in-law, 
found track employment during the 1369-70 
winter in an otherwise barter-economy Utah. 
He saw Oriental laborers working in gravel 
pits with their long-handled, square-pointed 
shovels. "When a train was backed into the 
pit, Mr. Chinaman would put his back up 
against the car and face the gravel, lifting 
the shovel over his head and shoulder, not 
watching where the gravel landed at all. 
About 20 men to the car, they would not 
move their bodies, but kept up a steady 
shoveling movement until the car was 
loaded." 



b 
























Mmm-__ 






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THE 

Union Pad Railroad 


Rellon,, 


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RAILROADS. 


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unit cw«m*- 


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PACIFIC RAILROAD, 


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lnri WOrfA of Nci-onil ir:nul ,„„irri„> 


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teiMty a, b<xul" 


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Mm, Mechanics art Freinta 


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arsixiao hammers, 

STEEL, 

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All kinds of material necessarv 


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MERCHANTS 


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CHOPPERS UD aims 

100 TEAMS 


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found men for construction work, then whetted desire to use railroads- 


the world was brought within reach. 



work in Nebraska. Later, Central Pacific 
worked on comparatively easy plateaus 
in Nevada and Utah, while Union Pacific 
found difficulty threading through the 
mountains of Wyoming and eastern 
Utah. 

As the Union Pacific tracks were laid 
into Ogden on Monday, March 8, 1869, 
the whole countryside turned out in 
celebration. Children, dressed in their 
Sunday best, lined both sides of the 
track, carrying flowers and flags, wait- 
ing for the train. Among the children 
was eight-year-old Dianna Farr. As the 
train came by, the engineer blew his 
whistle in jubilant celebration, and the 
small children scattered like frightened 
chickens. Dianna ran half a mile until 
she was mired waist-deep in a swamp. 
The other children ran, too. They had 
never heard a train whistle, and it 
scared them. 



As the railroads neared each other, 
competition increased. The contractors 
gave their men added incentives, and 
laborers often found it convenient to 
quit and work for the other company. 

John Gay was hired to take a hun- 
dred thousand dollars or so to em- 
ployees working on the Central Pacific. 
He and a companion took a good team 
and wagon, which was loaded in part 
with hay. At a distance west of Ogden 
they were stopped by horsemen who 
demanded to know if their leader was 
Chauncey West. "Never ever heard 
of him!" they exclaimed. And they 
drove on with a fortune under a layer 
of hay, while the unsavory riders waited 
for the paymaster for Farr, Benson and 
West. 

Fortunes were made and lost by the 
individual railroad contractors, who 
often used their own funds to meet the 



April 1969 



33 



payrolls while waiting for their own 
payments. Financial anxieties are said 
to havo hastened the untimely deaths 
of both Ezra T. Benson and Chauncey 
W. West. Lorin Farr lived to be paid 
in full by the Central Pacific, but in re- 
flective moods he was wont to describe 
himself as "railroad poor." 

The grades of the two railroads — al- 
ready completed in case they were 
needed by the competing companies — 
paralleled each other for miles through 
northern Utah. For each mile of track 
completed, the companies received 
their subsidy ($16,000-$48,000) plus 
10 square miles of land (64,000 acres). 

Central Pacific completed its track- 
age to Promontory Summit on May 1, 
1869, and on the afternoon of May 7, 
Union Pacific rails were laid at Promon- 
tory. Union Pacific Engine No. 60, with 
Jack Casement aboard, entered its track. 
Central Pacific Engine No. 66 — the 
"Whirlwind" — ran to its own railhead. 
Both engines screamed their whistles 
in salute. For all intents and purposes, 
the transcontinental railroad was com- 
pleted — 6 years, 3 months, and 29 days 
after the Central Pacific broke ground. 

The event for which the nation and 
the world was waiting occurred May 10, 
1869. At eight that morning spectators 
began to arrive. At 8:45 the first 
Central Pacific train came in from the 
west. Then two Union Pacific trains 
arrived. At 11:15 Leland Stanford's gaily 
decorated train arrived, pulled by the 
"Jupiter" engine. Although thirty 
thousand people were expected, the 
crowd that day has been estimated at 
a disappointing but boisterous 500-600. 

Officials of both roads had been un- 
able to agree on the program ahead of 
time. Finally, at five minutes before 
noon, when proceedings were to begin, 
Stanford of Central Pacific and Thomas 
C. Durant of Union Pacific agreed on a 
joint program. Meanwhile the crowd 
had grown loud and unmanageable, 
which interfered with the ceremony and 
made it impossible for many to see 
what was happening. It is thought that 
less than 20 persons saw the affair 



in its entirety, and none of the news- 
paper reporters were able to hear all 
that was said. 

Music for the day was by the Fort 
Douglas and the Tenth Ward bands 
from Salt Lake City. 

The Reverend Dr. John Todd of Mas- 
sachusetts, acting that day in dual 
capacity as a newspaper correspondent, 
offered a two-minute prayer. Next the 
spikes were driven except the cere- 
monial ones. In ceremonies that fol- 
lowed, Dr. W. H. Harkness of Sacra- 
mento presented two gold spikes to 
Union Pacific's Durant, who slid them 
into place in the polished laurel tie. 
Then Central Pacific's Stanford received 
precious metal spikes of gold, silver, 
and iron from Arizona and Nevada, and 
slid them into place. A ceremonial 
silver sledge hammer was also received. 
All the appropriate oratory ended. 



Then came the actual driving of the 
last ordinary spike with an ordinary 
sledge hammer that had been wired as 
a telegraphic key. Stanford and Durant 
both swung at the wired spike — and 
both men missed, to the delight of the 
crowd. However, an alert telegrapher, 
W. N. Shilling, clicked three dots over 
the wires at 12:47 p.m., triggering cele- 
brations at every major city in the 
country. In San Francisco, the impulse 
activated a fire alarm tower. A bell in 
the Capitol at Washington, D.C., rang 
with the impulse. The celebration in 
Salt Lake City centered in the Taber- 
nacle, completed two years before. 
Meanwhile, two other railroad officials, 
using an ordinary sledge, drove that 
last ordinary spike into its ordinary tie. 

Photographers were busy. Pictures 
were taken. Military officers and their 
wives gave the precious spikes cere- 



Union Pacific's Thomas C. Durant and his Utah grade contractors, John Sharp and John 
Young; Central Pacific's Leland Stanford and his Nevada-Utah grade contractors, Lorin Farr, 
Ezra T. Benson, and Chauncey W. West; Ulysses S. Grant, President of the United States, 
at time of the Golden Spike 



34 




monial taps with the tangs of their 
sword hilts, thus producing the only 
marks to be seen today on the gold 
spike. Central Pacific's "Jupiter" backed 
up, and Union Pacific's No. 119 crossed 
the junction. Then No. 119 backed up, 
and "Jupiter" crossed the junction, 
symbolizing the inauguration of the 
transcontinental rail travel. 

The telegraph wire pulsed with two 
more messages: "General U. S. Grant, 
President of the U.S., Washington, D.C. 
Sir: We have the honor to report the 
last rail laid and the last spike driven. 
The Pacific Railroad is finished." 

"To the Associated Press: The last 
rail is laid, the last spike driven, the 
Pacific Railroad is completed. Point of 
junction, ten hundred eighty-six miles 
west of the Missouri river and six hun- 
dred ninety miles east of Sacramento. 
— Leland Stanford, Thomas C. Durrant." 

The ceremony was over, and the 
precious spikes and tie were removed. 
But souvenir hunters were yet to be 
reckoned with. That day and in the 
months following dozens of "last 
spikes" mysteriously disappeared, and 
probably within the first six months as 
many ties were used in replacements. 

Nor did the ceremonial spikes and 
tie fare too well. The gold spike, pre- 
sented by David Hewes of San Fran- 
cisco, and the Nevada silver spike are 
now in a museum at Stanford Univer- 
sity, together with the silver sledge. 
The whereabouts of the Arizona spike 
and of the second gold spike, which 
seems to have been given to General 
Grenville M. Dodge of the Union Paci- 
fic, is a mystery. The laurel tie was 
destroyed in the San Francisco earth- 
quake and fire of 1906, which also, 
incidentally, destroyed the records of 
the Southern Pacific (Central Pacific) 
Railroad. 



President Brigham Young was not 
present at Promontory — he was hold- 
ing conferences elsewhere in the terri- 
tory. He was in Ogden one week later, 
May 17, 1869, cutting the sod, instead 



of using the usual pick, for construc- 
tion on the Utah Central to begin. Salt 
Lake City was not to be denied a rail- 
road line. 

It was a project of the people from 
the beginning. Many of the Saints had 
come to Utah years before on Perpetual 
Emigration Funds (PEF), a system de- 
vised by the Church to help the poorer 
Saints. But many had been unable to 
pay back PEF as planned. Here was an 
opportunity for them to work for the 
Utah Central and wipe the slate clean, 
and foreign-born fathers and their 
native-born sons worked side by side to 
pay off the fathers' indebtedness. The 
railroad was completed at Salt Lake 
City January 10, 1870, amid the cheers 
of not fewer than 15,000 citizens. 

Brigham Young, president of Utah 
Central, drove the last spike at 2:09 
p.m. with a large steel mallet manu- 
factured and decorated at the Church 
blacksmith shops. Engraved upon the 
top of the tool was a beehive, sur- 
mounted by the inscription "Holiness 
to the Lord," and under the beehive 
were the letters "U. C. R. R." 

The coming of the railroad wrought 
great changes in Utah. During the 
years immediately preceding completion 
of the overland railroad, imports seldom 
exceeded 12,000 tons, and exports 
were even smaller. In 1871 the volume 
of domestic imports and exports had 
increased to 80,000 tons and was soon 
increased to about 125,000 tons an- 
nua-lly. The population of Utah also 
increased measurably — from 86,786 in 
1870 to 143,963 in 1880 and 210,779 
in 1890. 

To a large extent great strides had 
already been charted and pioneering 
had already begun in many fields and 
industries in Utah before completion 
of the railroad. But on the back of the 
iron horse, which pioneer enthusiasm 
had helped to saddle, both Mormon 
and Gentile in Utah rode more swiftly 
and easily toward the realization of a 
West that was ready and eager to make 
its social and economic contributions 
to the nation. o 



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35 



The Mormons and 
the Irish 



By Brent A. Barlow 



• The names of towns, counties, 
and cities in the United States 
testify of the many Irish who 
helped settle American communi- 
ties. Sixty-five locations are named 
after people whose names bear the 
Irish prefix "O," and several others 
begin with "mac." Numerous coun- 
ties and cities bear Irish identities: 
there are 24 Dublins, 21 Water- 
fords, 18 Belfasts, 16 Tyrones, 10 
Limericks, 9 Antrims, 8 Sligos, 7 
Derrys, 6 Corks, 5 Kildares, plus 
others in America. 

Latter-day Saints may wonder 
what relationship existed between 
the Church and the Irish. Since the 
Church was organized during the 
period in which many Irish immi- 
grated to America, did the Irish 
significantly contribute to the es- 
tablishment of the restored gospel? 
Until recently, some historians have 
implied that the Irish have had 
little to do with the establishment 
of the Church. Even though latter- 
day revelation declared that the 
gospel was for "all nations, kin- 
dreds, tongues and people" (D&C 
42:58), several non-Mormons dur- 
ing the nineteenth century claimed 
that one nation was immune to 
Mormonism— Ireland. 

A western American historian 
stated the Irish were "the only 
European people who contributed 
no recruits to the Mormon com- 
munity." He also noted "there were 
very few of the Irishmen who 
joined the Mormons [in Utah] and 



not a single Irish woman!" 1 In 
1856, a newspaper, the Irish Amer- 
ican, claimed that not one genuine 
Hibernian (Irishman) had ever 
arrived in New York with the Mor- 
mon immigrants. And a contem- 
porary newspaper similarly stated 
during that year: 

"Among the many thousands of 
Mormons who came to this country 
we do not believe there has been 
anyone who belonged to Ireland. 
The elders do not obtain any con- 
verts among the Irish, nor do their 
doctrines find favor. A well known 
Irish gentleman in New York has 
in vain tried to detect an Irishman 
or woman among the many Mor- 
mons who have entered Castle 
Garden. On Saturday last, 170 
Mormons were landed at the depot 
from the ship Thornton, most of 
them having been sent out at the 
expense of the Mormon Emigrant 
Fund. He saw among them Eng- 
lish, Scotch, Welsh, Jerseymen, 
Danes and Swedes in great num- 
bers,"- but he reported he saw no 
Irish. 

Similar reports were made in 
Great Britain. On September 1, 
1885, the London Daily Chronicle 
contained an editorial claiming that 
prior to that date, "no native of the 
Green Isle [Ireland] had made his 
appearance in Salt Lake City as a 
believer in Mormonism." 3 Two days 
later an article titled "Irish in Salt 
Lake City," signed by a Mr. Peter 
O'Leary, affirming the previous 



Brent A. Barlow, president of the Tallahassee (Florida) Student Branch, is a 
former missionary to Ireland. He completed a masters thesis on the history of 
the Church in Ireland and is presently pursuing a Ph.D. at Florida State 
University. 



editorial, appeared in the same 
newspaper. Mr. O'Leary claimed 
to have been in Salt Lake City at 
the time of Brigham Young's 
funeral (1877) and said he had 
found many Irish in Utah, "but not 
one was a member of the Mormon 
Church." 4 

However, on February 6, 1905, 
the Deseret News replied to the 
question, which had been raised 
again: "There are quite a number 
of Irish people in the Mormon 
Church. . . . The fervent, faithful 
Irish members, some of whom are 
in Utah, and others in Ireland, Scot- 
land and various parts of Europe, 
are living witnesses to the falsity of 
the gist of the article reviews, which 
is the assertion that 'there are no 
Irish Mormons.' " 

Indeed, while tens of thousands 
of converts were gathered out of 
England, Scotland, and Wales 
during the nineteenth century, re- 
search today discloses at least 809 
known or recorded converts gained 
in Ireland by the year 1900. And 
even though the number of con- 
verts in Ireland was small, the Irish 
as a people did not reject the 
Church. Additional investigation 
indicates numerous Irish people 
who immigrated to other countries, 
particularly England and Scotland, 
became converts to the Church. 

When missionaries arrived in 
England in 1837, many Irish were 
already scattered throughout the 
British Isles. As early as 1815 many 
of Ireland's farmers saw no future 
for them in their country. The 
1816-18 typhus fever epidemic and 
industrial failure gave added incen- 
tive for the Irish to emigrate. As 
land rents rose to outlandish highs, 
and as the population steadily in- 
creased, the people began to leave 
their country for other parts of 
Britain. By 1840, one-seventh of 
the population of Liverpool and 
one-tenth of Manchester were Irish 
refugees. Since both cities were 



36 



Improvement Era 



regularly proselyted by missionaries 
during the following decade, it is 
highly probable that some, if not 
many, of the first converts to the 
Church in England were native 
Irish people. In 1840, Heber C. 
Kimball wrote to the Prophet 
Joseph Smith that "many" who had 
been baptized in England had 
friends in Ireland, indicating the 
possible Irish nationality of some 
of the early converts. 

Although numerous Irish were 
living outside their country by 
1840, a few years later the infamous 
potato famine caused many others 
to leave Ireland. Most students of 
history are aware of the mass Irish 
immigration to the American shores 
during that time, but there was an- 
other emigration more numerous 
though less celebrated in which the 
Irish in overwhelming masses 
crossed the Irish channel to land 
at ports in England, Scotland, and 
Wales. 

Irish immigration to Liverpool, 
England, began in January 1847, 
when six thousand refugees fled to 
the city; one month later, the influx 
of Irish peasants became so numer- 
ous that Lord Borougham of the 
House of Lords rose in Parliament 
on February 4, 1847, and reported 
that three thousand Irish paupers 
from every part of Ireland had 
landed at Liverpool during the pre- 
vious 48 hours. The emigration 
continued, and by June 1, 1847, a 
total of 300,000 Irish people had 
descended on Liverpool, which had 
previously had population of only 
250,000. One alarmed Liverpool 
citizen stated that "the arrival in 
1847 of tens of thousands of Irish 
paupers dealt this work [city im- 
provements] a shattering blow . . . 
[and] the peasants are coming over 
here by the regiments. ..." 

How many of the "Liverpool 
Irish" were baptized into the 
Church? The Liverpool Branch re- 
cords for 1840-1855 show that of 



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those converts who named their 
place of birth, nine percent were 
born in Ireland. One such Irish 
convert was Charles A. Callis, who 
was born in Dublin and immigrated 
to Utah, where he later became a 
member of the Council of the 
Twelve. Phillip A. M. Taylor, a 
British historian, concluded that of 
the numerous Liverpool converts 
who recorded no birthplace, many 
were "transients," which would 
adequately describe Irish refugees. 
The Liverpool Albion noted during 
this period that the bulk of con- 
verts and emigrants were farmers, 
farmer's servants, and their wives 
and families. In 1841, 507,651 Irish 
harvesters went to Britain to seek 
employment. 

Large numbers of Irish also went 
to Glasgow, Scotland, during the 
famine years, and reports in 1847 
stated that the streets were "liter- 
ally swarming" with Irish people. 
Between June 15 and August 17, 
1847, more than 26,000 Irish arrived 
in Glasgow. An examination of the 
Glasgow Branch records for 1840- 
51 indicated that of those converts 
who reported their birthplace, 18 
percent were born in Ireland, and 
during the famine years of 1845-47, 
35 percent of the converts in Glas- 
gow were Irish. Apparently Irish 
conversions in Scotland later in- 
creased, because on January 4, 
1862, George Q. Cannon of the 
British Mission presidency stated: 
"I understand there are more Saints 
in Glasgow and in Western Scot- 
land who are Irish and of Irish 
extraction than there are of Scotch; 
and this proves that they are sus- 
ceptible to the truth when cir- 
cumstances are favorable to their 
receiving it." fi 

During the years of famine, the 
ports of Swansea, Cardiff, and 
Newport, Wales, received so many 
Irish that an inspector for the 
Welsh coast reported that "great 
numbers of Irish landed . . . but the 



number could not be ascertained 
or even guessed." Even though no 
statistics are now available of Irish 
conversions in Wales, there were 
undoubtedly many Irish refugees 
who joined. But the only correla- 
tion that might be made with the 
Church in Wales at this time is that 
on October 17, 1846, Dan Jones, a 
highly successful missionary, re- 
ported that with the help of a few 
others, more than one thousand 
converts had been gained in Wales 
during the past 18 months. During 
this same time the Irish were 
arriving in Wales in large num- 
bers; hence, the Irish were prob- 
ably among the Welsh converts. 

To some missionaries in Great 
Britain, the Irish potato famine of 
the 1840's was more than a natural 
disaster. In 1823, the Angel Moroni 
declared to Joseph Smith that judg- 
ments were coming upon the earth 
with great desolations of famine, 
sword, and pestilences, and that 
these grievous judgments would 
occur during that generation. Fur- 
thermore, modern revelation stated 
that in the last days, God would 
gather his people "by the mouth of 
my servants . . . and by the voice 
of famine." (D&C 43:24-25.) 

Missionaries did not hesitate to 
make these prophecies known. In 
1840, Times and Seasons reported 
the economic distress of the people 
in Ireland and stated, "When we 
see prophesy fulfilling, we are 
bound to acknowledge that those 
who uttered it were dictated by the 
spirit of truth." 7 That same year, 
Heber C. Kimball wrote from Eng- 
land to Joseph Smith describing 
Ireland's economic turmoil, the un- 
employment situation, and the tens 
of thousands who were starving: 
"This scene of things is passing 
before our eyes daily, and we look 
upon it with sorrow and regret; at 
the same time it is that which is 
spoken by the mouths of prophets. 
. . . These things are coming upon 



Improvement Era 



the inhabitants, yet they are blind 
and cannot see it; they appear to 
exult over the saints and when a 
few fine days come (which are 
indeed scarce) they cry out to the 
saints, 'where is [sic] your famines, 
pestilences and judgments you have 
predicted;' then we tell them to 
wait a little while and they shall 
see them, and they shall know that 
we have told the truth. " s To Elder 
Kimball, the famine was inevitable. 

When the famine did occur, Par- 
ley P. Pratt claimed the awaited 
judgments had begun in Ireland. 
His editorial in the Millennial Star 
in 1845 declared: ". . . and why did 
the potato crop ... in Ireland perish 
and rot in a night? . . . Because the 
angel hath flown in the midst of 
heaven, having the everlasting gos- 
pel to preach to them that dwell 
on earth; and to every nation, 
kindred, tongue and people saying 
with a loud voice, fear God, and 
give glory to Him, for the hour of 
His judgment is come."" 

A secondary result of the famine 
occurred in 1844, when the Church's 
leaders in Britain expanded their 
emigration efforts into a general 
shipping company that provided 
transportation to America for any- 
one who would pay the fee. Reu- 
ben Hedlock, a Church leader in 
Britain, formed a partnership with 
Hiram Shaw, who had some finan- 
cial interests in Ireland; and be- 
cause thousands of Irishmen were 
fleeing their country, provisions 
were made to jointly transport 
Irish refugees and Church converts 
to America. Although little is 
known of the extent to which these 
plans were carried out, there are 
some indications that the Saints 
and Irish shared sailing vessels 
while crossing the Atlantic Ocean. 
On a Church emigration ship in 
1852, it was reported that "besides 
the Saints, there were a number of 
Irish emigrants on board." 1 " Irish 
were also aboard a Church emigra- 



tion ship in January 1855, and 
during March that year 401 Saints 
and about fifty Irish were aboard a 
ship sailing for America. Since there 
are indications that missionaries 
were actively proselyting while 
crossing the ocean, it is possible that 
some of the Irish people heard the 
gospel and joined after encounter- 
ing the Church at sea. 

While several Irish Mormon pio- 
neers are listed among the early 
settlers of the intermountain area, 
the following converts were among 
those who rose to prominence: 

Charles A. Callis, who was born 
in Dublin, Ireland, served as a mis- 
sionary, was president of the 
Southern States Mission for 26 
years, and was ordained on Octo- 
ber 12, 1933, as an apostle. 

James Ferguson held the rank of 
sergeant major in the Mormon Bat- 
talion and was historian of the 
famous infantry march to the Paci- 
fic Coast. Born in Belfast, Ireland, 
on February 28, 1828, Mr. Ferguson 
was also a sheriff in Salt Lake 
County, territorial attorney general, 
and a self-taught lawyer, orator, 
and dramatist. 

When the original pioneer com- 
pany entered the Great Salt Lake 
Valley on July 24, 1847, three Irish- 
men were in the party: Robert E. 
Baird (Byard), born May 15, 1817, 
in Londonderry, Ireland, served as 
camp tailor. James Craig was camp 
bugler and known as the "Bugler of 
the Pioneers." Pie was born in 1821 
in Ireland and later returned to his 
homeland as a missionary. Howard 
Egan, who was born June 15, 1815, 
in King's County, Ireland, became 
a member of the Nauvoo Legion 
and held the rank of major. Until 
his death, he was known as "Major 
Egan." He faithfully kept a diary 
during the westward journey in 
1846-47, and this record has been 
published in a volume titled Pio- 
neering the West. 

Among other early pioneers were 



Irishmen who became known as au- 
thors and writers. William A. Mor- 
ton, who was born January 19, 
1855, at Banbridge, Ireland, served 
as assistant editor of the Millennial 
Star, secretary of the Genealogical 
Society, and editor of the Utah 
Genealogical and Historical Maga- 
zine. He wrote several books, in- 
cluding Mother Stories of the Book 
of Mormon, From Ploughboy to 
Prophet, Life of Christ for Little 
Children, and the widely used mis- 
sionary tract, "Why I Believe the 
Book of Mormon to Be the W r ord of 
God." 

Richard H. Smyth, a poet and 
writer, was born December 25, 
1838, in Dublin, Ireland, and had 
many articles published in the Mil- 
lennial Star, Juvenile Instuctor, and 
Deseret Neivs. He was also the 
author of the hymn "Israel, Israel, 
God Is Calling," a favorite song of 
the British Saints in the early days. 

Hugh Ireland, also an Irishman, 
served two years as editor of the 
Millennial Star and for 20 years as 
editor of an early missionary pub- 
lication, the Liahona. 

The first bookstore in Salt Lake 
City was operated by James Dwyer, 
who was born in Ireland in 1831. 
His establishment served as the 
literary and educational center in 
Utah for many years. 

These names, plus over a hun- 
dred others listed in biographical 
collections of prominent Mormon 
pioneers, must silence the report 
that "there were no Irish Mor- 
mons." Though the names discussed 
here do not include any Irish 
women, several hundred, perhaps 
more, were among the stalwarts of 
the Church. Latter-day Saints who 
do genealogy today will probably 
find in many cases that their grand- 
mother or great-grandmother came 
from Ireland. As we extend our 
genealogical work, many members 
of the Church will probably dis- 
cover Irish ancestory even though 



April 1969 



39 



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40 



their more immediate progenitors 
came from America, Australia, 
France, Canada, the British Isles, 
or any other country to which the 
dispersed Irish nation has fled. 

In 1855, Elder John D. T. Mc- 
Allister, missionary in Ireland, 
stated: ". . . royal blood flows in the 
veins of Ireland's noble sons and 
daughters and when they have the 
privilege of hearing the Gospel, 
they will embrace it. . . ." n This ut- 
terance has been fulfilled in many 
instances and lately for the Irish in 
their native country. In July 1962. 
a mission was organized, and dur- 
ing the past six and a half years 
the membership has steadily in- 
creased. In addition, four beautiful 
chapels have been erected. The 
current Irish Mission president is 
Theron M. Ashcroft. 

What of the future of the Church 
in Ireland? After returning in 1885 
as European Mission president, 
Elder John Henry Smith of the 
Council of the Twelve reported in 
general conference : 

"I am inclined to believe that 
there are hundreds and thousands 
of people in Ireland who will re- 
ceive the Gospel. ... I found them 
[the Irish] among the purest stock 
upon the earth. Virtue is held at a 
high premium among them. The 
statistics in Great Britain show this 
fact. I say this speaks volumes for 
Ireland, and I trust the Gospel may 
spread in the land and thousands 
may receive its truth." 1 - ° 



FOOTNOTES 

'Hugh Quigley, The Irish Race in California 
and on the Pacific Coast (San Francisco: A. 
Roman and Company, 1878), pp. 544-46. 

-The Mormon, Vol. 2 (August 9, 1856), No. 
25 (John Taylor, ed., 1855-57). On file at 
Church Historian's Office. 

■■Millennial Star, Vol. 47 (1885), p. 586. 

'Ibid. 

"Cecil Woodham Smith, The Great Hunter 
(New York: Harper and Row, 1962), p. 273. 

''Millennial Star, Vol. 24 (1862), p. 134. 

'Times and Seasons, Vol. 2 (December 1. 
1840), p. 232. 

Hhid., Vol. 6 (April 1, 1845), pp. 862-63. 

■"Millennial Star, Vol. 8 (1846), p. 100. 

w ]ournal History of The Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints, January 10, 1852. 
Located in Church Historian's Office. 

"Millennial Star, Vol, 17 (1855), p. 474. 

^Journal of Discourses, Vol. 26, pp. 176-77. 



Improvement Era 



• It was after the game, and two young men 
talked as they waited for hamburgers to be 
served. It was a different conversation from 
what one usually hears. 

"Power of the priesthood? What do you 
mean? I've been ordained a priest, and I 
bless the sacrament," said the younger one, 
"but power? / have power? To do what?" 

The older one was thoughtful, and smiled 
slightly as he spoke. "That's how I felt 
before I went on my mission. I just didn't 
really understand. One day a lady brought 
me her sick baby to bless. She was counting 
on me to do something. Me! I prayed hard 
for a feeling — a conviction that I could do 
anything, even with the Lor€l's help. I realized 
then that she could have prayed to God her- 
self, but she wanted the help of the priest- 
hood. 

So I placed my hands on that baby's 
head and the Lord healed him. I've known 
since that moment that priesthood is power. 
It isn't just another name for scouting. It's 



being able to do good — the extra things, the 
needful things — in cooperation with God. He 
will honor us in these efforts in a special way. 
I know this now, and it niakes a lot of dif- 
ference in how I live." 

What about you and the priesthood you 
hold? Have you thought of the difference it 
can make in life? Here is a checklist to 
consider : 

* Your friend is seriously injured in an 
accident. You are on the scene. What could 
you do? 

*Your team has climbed on the bus, ready 
to travel some distance for an interstake 
game. What could you do? 

* A girl at school works on the same com- 
mittee with you and has expressed an inter- 
est in learning more about the Church. What 
could you do? 

* Your father isn't a member of the 
Church, but your sister needs some help in 
making an important decision. What could 
vou do? ° 



Power*? 

1© Do What? 



42 



Era of Youth 



From a personal letter to Elder Marion D. Hanks from Lt. Col. 
Rulon P. Madsen, serving with the U.S. Army in Vietnam. 



Reunion 
With a Son 



• As I performed the duties of alert officer through a long, lonely night in the highlands of 
Vietnam, I had the privilege of listening to tape recordings of the last general conference. What 
a wonderful blessing that was! But as I sat there with a tear in my eye, my mind went back to 
the week before, when we had enjoyed the opportunity to meet in a humble chapel in central 
Vietnam for our quarterly district servicemen's conference. 

A large group of LDS men and friends had gathered from all parts of the third and fourth 
corps areas in the expectation of meeting one of the General Authorities from Salt Lake City, 
together with our mission president from Hong Kong. Our first meeting had begun without 
the presence of the visiting brethren, as their airplane had been delayed. Conducting was a fine 
young LDS chaplain, Captain Joseph F. McConkie. 

As our meeting progressed, I glanced at Chaplain McConkie and saw a smile come upon 
his face not quite like any smile I had seen before. He stood as Mission President W. Brent Hardy 
stepped up on the stand. In a moment we all saw the special inspiration for the wonderful smile. 
Behind President Hardy came, not the General Authority anticipated, but Chaplain McConkie's 
father, President Bruce R. McConkie of the First Council of Seventy. Father and son shook 
hands, then, in the presence of the entire conference, embraced each other with a kiss of love. 
Many respectful, homesick men beheld that tender scene with tear- filled eyes. 

Is it possible for others to comprehend the feeling that those two shared in that wonderful 
moment? I have tried, and as I think of it even today my eyes moisten with tears. It was the 
sweetest and most humble greeting I have ever witnessed. I was filled with joy for both of them, 
moved by the open expression of such outstanding love between father and son. No doubt many 
others sat through the remainder of that conference considering, as I did, the basis of so won- 
derful a relationship, and praying that as fathers or sons we might, through the gospel of Jesus 
Christ, build such love between us and our dear ones at home. 

It was an experience none of us will ever forget. o 



April 1969 43 



Youth Speaks to Youth 




Dennis Spackman 

Dennis, 18, is a priest in the 
Lewiston Second Ward, Benson 
Stake. 

• For years, we have been 
taught that the priesthood is the 
authority jto act in God's name. 
Now our leaders are telling us 
that priesthood is the responsi- 
bility to act for God. 

Was the gospel restored before 
the priesthood? No. The priest- 
hood was restored first. It had 
to be, for it is the priesthood that 
sponsors the gospel and regu- 
lates the Church. God's work 
must be done, and God has given 
the priesthood the responsibility 
to do his work. We in the priest- 
hood are God's representatives. 
It is our responsibility to do his 
work and to try to do it as he 
would do it. 

One of our responsibilities is 
to prepare to be of service. 
Samuel, a prophet of the Old 
Testament, while still a child 
was given to Eli to prepare him 
to serve the Lord. The Prophet 



Joseph Smith prepared for nine 
years before he received the Mel- 
chizedek Priesthood. 

The Church has many pro- 
grams to prepare us for the great 
responsibilities of a mission 
and the Melchizedek Priesthood, 
starting with the home, Primary, 
Sunday School, MIA, seminary, 
and the Aaronic Priesthood, 
which offer every boy opportuni- 
ties to prepare. To get my Indi- 
vidual Award each year I must 
fulfill the requirements of study- 
ing and memorizing scriptures. 
This gives me a much better un- 
derstanding of the gospel. The 
talks I am asked to give make me 
more at ease in front of an audi- 
ence and prepare me to discuss 
the gospel with others. Each time 
I go home teaching, I increase 
my ability to meet and be inter- 
ested in people and to understand 
their problems. 

Doing my assignments regu- 
larly and well develops responsi- 
bility and dependable habits in 
me. These will prepare me to 
fulfill my responsibility as a 
leader in the kingdom of God. 

Through my experience in the 
Church and otherwise, I have 
learned that certain things are 
right or wrong. I may once have 
questioned them, but they are no 
longer problems. I can rely on 
these convictions later. It's like 
having money in the bank, to be 
used when needed, or storing up 
supplies for one's physical needs. 
For me, narcotics are not a prob- 
lem, nor is alcohol. I know it is 
good to be honest with the Lord. 
I know the value of prayer. 

To stay worthy and be pre- 
pared takes sacrifice and effort. 



In summary, we are God's 
representatives, and it is our 
responsibility to act for God and 
do his work as he would do it 
himself. We need to take advan- 
tage of the programs provided in 
the Church and live the gospel 
to prepare for this responsibility, o 




Mark Peterson 

Mark, 15, is a teacher in the Las 
Vegas 27th Ward, Las Vegas 
East Stake. 

• Can any of you remember how 
you felt or what your father 
said when you were ordained a 
member of the Aaronic Priest- 
hood? I felt great. I thought 
that this was the most wonderful 
thing that had ever happened to 
me, and my father reminded me 
that I was now taking upon my- 
self the priesthood of our Heav- 
enly Father, and that with it 
came certain responsibilities. He 
asked our Heavenly Father to 
bless me that I might magnify 
my calling, and he counseled me 
to get down before my Heavenly 
Father on my knees in prayer 
whenever I was troubled about 



44 



Era of Youth 



something. In essence this was 
the beginning of my partnership 
with my Heavenly Father, which 
has helped me and will continue 
to help me as long as I honor 
my priesthood. 

What does this partnership 
with our Heavenly Father mean? 
Does it mean that we should be 
loyal to him? That we should 
show our love for him by carry- 
ing out the responsibilities he 
has set down for us? Of course it 
does. When a person mentions 
the responsibilities of a teacher, 
I immediately think of my as- 
signed duties, such as preparing 
the sacrament, ushering, home 
teaching, collecting fast offer- 
ings, and the other responsibili- 
ties that a teacher has. But 
these are not all. 

We have a certain spiritual 
responsibility to our Heavenly 
Father, and that is to be worthy 
to hold this priesthood. And the 
best way one can do this is to be 
morally and physically clean. 

I enjoy the story of Saul's 
conversion to the gospel. In it is 
found the key to seeking and 
finding a better relationship 
with our Heavenly Father. As 
you remember, Paul, who was 
known as Saul, was on his way 
to Damascus to persecute the 
Christians there, and he had 
vowed that he was going to bring 
these Christians back to Jeru- 
salem. As he journeyed close to 
the city of Damascus, a bright 
light shone round about him, and 
he fell to the earth stunned. Then 
he heard a voice saying, "Saul, 
Saul, why persecutest thou me?" 
Paul asked, "Who art thou, 
Lord?" And the voice said, "I 
am Jesus." 

Paul, now realizing that he 
had to establish a good relation- 
ship with him whom he had been 
persecuting, said, "Lord, what 
wilt thou have me to do?" With 
this question Paul began his 



great mission for our Heavenly 
Father. 

I believe that if all of us 
priesthood holders would ask 
this question — "Lord, what wilt 
thou have me to do?" — we would 
be able to serve as greatly and 
as nobly as Paul did, and we 
would find a true relationship 
with our Heavenly Father in 
this priesthood calling. o 




Jeffrey Smith 

Jeffrey, 1J+, is a former deacon 
in the Oak Hills First Ward, 
East Sharon Stake. 

• When I was first given this 
assignment, I thought that my 
heart would stop beating. In 
fact, I think it will right now. 
But then I remembered that 
whenever we are working to do 
what is right, our Heavenly 
Father will help us. This is true 
with any and all of our actions. 
When we are striving to do what 
is right and sincerely ask God 
for help, he will help us. 

I was asked to talk about what 
it really means to me to be a 
deacon. First of all, there are 
the obligations involved. I must 
set an example for my family 
and friends and help them to do 
those things which are right. I 
can do this by using clean lan- 
guage and having clean thoughts 
at all times, by exercising deter- 



mination and loyalty in all things 
that I do, by attending my 
church meetings. I must also be 
an active member in the ward 
and do the jobs I am assigned, 
such as passing the sacrament, 
collecting fast offerings, help- 
ing in genealogy, and helping to 
clean up the meetinghouse. 

As a deacon I must prepare to 
hold a higher office in the priest- 
hood, along with more challeng- 
ing responsibilities. This is one 
point that I think is of great 
importance as a deacon — that I 
prepare myself to hold positions 
of higher service in the Church. 
Every priesthood holder has 
started out as a deacon. The 
deacon is the first office in the 
Aaronic Priesthood. Here we 
learn to function properly in the 
priesthood. This helps us to be 
able to work to the best of our 
ability in the other offices in the 
Aaronic Priesthood and later in 
the Melchizedek Priesthood. 
As a deacon, by fulfilling my 

'assignments and keeping the 
commandments, I receive many 
special rights, blessings, and op- 
portunities. Why are there dea- 
cons and why must we fulfill 
our assignments ? One point that 

, I think we should all remember 
as priesthood holders is that our 
job is to do that work which our 
Heavenly- Father would like us 
to do for him — to perform 
ordinances in God's name and 
with his authority. As an exam- 
ple, I am able to share in a small 
measure the great atoning sacri- 
fice of Jesus Christ as I help to 
pass the sacrament. Our Heav- 
enly Father needs helpers to 
perform these duties, so that all 
of the members of the Church 
may renew their covenants with 
him. As a holder of this sacred 
priesthood, I must strive my 
hardest to be perfect, for this is 
the way of our Heavenly Father, 
and we are doing his work. o 



April 1969 



45 




Photo by E/don Llnschoten 




Photo by Savage 



iiS&ti. .tiE'l- 



).lf 3 



46 



Era of Youth 




It was all aboard the old-time trains that first roared across 
the country — all aboard for latter-day pioneers when the youth of 
Corinne, Utah, decided to relive the historic Golden Spike event 
of a century before right there near their own hometown. The old 
trains are part of the Corinne Railroad Monument, and the youth 
posed like the spectators in the original pictures taken as the trains 
met at Promontory Summit May 10, 1869. And this year — 1969 — 
is the year of the big centennial celebration. 

A sense of history filled their minds as Corinne teens took 
part in reliving the olden days. They even made their own costumes 
to carry things all the way. They learned that dreams can come 
true, as they heard the details once more of the momentous event 
that joined the nation east and west. Rail tracks had moved as far 
west as Omaha by 1860, but there was still a lot of America left. 
The dream of spanning the nation with the railroad moved toward 
becoming a reality when President Abraham Lincoln signed the 
Pacific Railroad Act July 1, 1862. And the work began. The race 
was on, with tracks being laid from Sacramento in the west, 690 
miles from Promontory, and from Omaha, 1086 miles to the east. 
Where the two met, golden spikes were driven into the tie, and 
history was made. 




All 
Aboard! 

By D. James Cannon 




"Look,do you know 
what a train is?" 

"Sure ==it rhymes 

with rain, but it 

won't get you 

to the moon, 

man!" 



April 1969 



47 




! 




!i*!fl* 




§11 






;■ 



KnowThallAmS 



By S. Dilworth Young 

First Council of the Seventy 

Youth speaks: 

/ do not seek thee, Lord, 

In highest hill or 

Valley low. 

The cloudy sky 

Or stars which light the night 

Are not thy face 

I know. 

Thou art the Son of God. 

I thirst to touch thy garment hem, 

To hear thy voice, 

And to rejoice in thy 

Calm presence, Lord. 

A growing youth, I seek 

To know thee and to 

Hear thy word. 

The Lord whom ye seek speaks: s 

My will is in my word: 

Written in the rock 

With iron pen, 

Or graven in the 

Gold of ancient plates. 

My will is spoken 

Unto men 

Through prophets. 

My voice speaks through 

These chosen ones 

Who write my words 

On the page for all to see. 

And reading them — 

Given by my power 

In the hour 

Of their need — 

They are my voice 

To you, 

Young friend, 

And reading, you can say 

That you have heard my voice 

This very day. 

Illustrated by Fred Van Dyke 



The voice in the words: 



These words are not of men nor of man, 

But of me; wherefore, you shall testify 

They are of me and not of man; 

For it is my voice which speaketh 

Them unto you; 

For they are given by my Spirit 

Unto you, 

And by my power you can read them 

One to another; and save it were by 

My power, you could not have them; 

Wherefore, you can testify that you have 

Heard my voice, and know my words. 

(See D&C 18:34-36.) 

And would you seek His face? 

Then look upon your fellow 

In distress and succor him. 

The living presence of the Lord 

Cannot be found 

Until you do what he once did: 

Help those in need; 

Show love in word and deed. 

Do you now hear his voice? 

Inasmuch as ye have done it 

Unto one of the least of these my brethren, 

Ye have done it unto me. (See Matt. 25:40.) 



This done, now hear 

The voice once more; 

Verily, thus saith the Lord: 

It shall come to pass that every soul 

Who forsaketh his sins and cometh 

Unto me, 

And calleth on my name, 

And obeyeth my voice, and keepeth my commandments, 

Shall see my face 

And know that I am. (See D&C 93:1.) 



April 1969 



49 






'':■:". 



k 








Who is your hero? 

Choice Latter-day Saint boys 
toda^ cKojpse to emulate great 
men%f thl past and to look like 
exampleskof the believer." 
(Spring clothes courtesy Vil- 
lage Ltd., Salt Lake City, Utah.) 



m m 



•■' 



m 

m 




April 1969 



51 



You Make All the Difference 



You... 

make all the difference to 

a play 

a game 

a youth conference 

a festival 

a church outing 

a service project 

a fireside 

a class party 

a welfare assignment 



By your very presence 
YOU make all the differ- 
ence. Everybody really is 
there. 

But it isn't just the fact 
of the more the merrier. It's 
that YOU add a quality no- 
body else can. You've al- 
ready learned to be socially 
smart and personally re- 
sponsive. You are interested 
and caring and enthusiastic 
and absolutely alive. You 
realize your responsibility as 
a guest or a participant to 
rise to the occasion envi- 
sioned by the host or spon- 
soring committee. Such 
qualities spell success for 
a function. But being on 
the scene isn't really 
enough. It's being 
there every mo- 
ment. Since you 
are that kind 
of person, 
YOU make 
all the dif 
ference. 



By Elaine Cannon 



52 





53 



The Grand Land 

Singers and 
Project Patriotism 



• They live in California, but the 
world is theirs to sing in. They 
call themselves the Grand Land 
Singers, and they are organized 
for the purpose of promoting 
"love of God and country through 
the medium of patriotic song" and 
By Bob Emmons to show by example "the ideals 

Photos by Donald W. Heit 




that we, as youth of America, deem 
most sacred and valuable." 

And in the hearts of these young 
singers and in the lives of their 
listeners, the once going move- 
ment of patriotism is being re- 
vived. When they take to the stage 
all smiles and songs, they boldly 




announce that the moral fiber of 
this nation is still strong and the 
principles upon which it was 
founded are still exciting, valid, 
and worth doing something about. 

So they're singing — every place 
from the BYU fieldhouse in Provo, 
Utah, to the Hollywood Bowl, in 
churches and civic clubs, on as- 
semblies at schools, and at Inde- 
pendence Day picnics in the park. 

Ray Furgeson, Wayne Haws, 
and Calvin Greer, Jr., are the three 
adult managers and musical di- 
rectors. Jeff Lofgran is the cur- 
rent group president, and the 
personnel of the chorus came from 
all over America. All they have to 
do to belong is maintain the high 
standards of living and church 
activity to which Latter-day Saints 
are committed. But they don't 
have to be Latter-day Saints. In 
fact, several are not, but many 
converts to the Church have been 
made through this special associa- 
tion. 

We interviewed some of the 72 
college-age men and women, and 
here is what they have to say. 

Larry Taylor: When I was intro- 
duced to the Grand Land Singers, 
I was immediately impressed. I 
wanted to be with them more, 
find out what made them so 
happy, and share in what they 
possessed. 

It wasn't long before I was tak- 
ing missionary lessons, as well as 
becoming a part of the group, 
and on May 4, 1968, I was bap- 



tized. Since that time I have 
brought friends to introduce them 
to the group, and one, Tom Vogel, 
was baptized June 15. Three 
weeks later, his mother and two 
brothers were also baptized. 

John C. Heredia: Living in Viet- 
nam (for 11 months, 27 days, and 
four hours) had started a drive 
within me. This group and what it 
stands for have given me a new 
hope, a fresh start, and a greater 
understanding of people and 
ideas. I feel I'm a better man, and 
I thank God for it. 

Calvin Greer, Jr.: Realizing that 
the world is growing more chaotic 
each day, I am very encouraged 
to know that my friends and I 
are contributing to the preserva- 
tion of the true American ideals 
by inspiring others with our per- 
formances. 

Bill Citbor, drummer: I was in 
a rock group for eight years, trying 
to make it "big." The only rea- 
son I was playing drums was for 
glory and money. I went into the 
naval reserves in January, won- 
dering if I would ever play drums 
again, concerned only about my 
country. But since I've joined the 
singers, I'm doing something for 
our country, something very rare 
for Americans to do these days, 
and playing drums, too. It's the 
greatest! 

Don Benschneider: Grand Land 
Singers to me is serving my coun- 
try without being in the service. It 
is carrying a different type of gun. 



55 



Lois Fry: To be with the mem- 
bers of the Grand Land Singers is 
a constant renewal of my incen- 
tive to love everyone and add my 
very best efforts to life. 

Mike Deming: It's fun to sing 
out with a group of guys and gals 
with a positive outlook on the 
future and a determination to 
make a better future. What is more 
important is the message we sing 
about — love of our country. To let 
people know that God and the 
American dream are not dead 
means a lot to me. 

D. Thayne Hinman: I find parti- 
cipation in the Grand Land Singers 
the closest thing to my former 
activities in the mission field, both 
spiritually and physically, and 
that's why I'm dedicated to the 
group and what it stands for: one 
purpose under God, with a testi- 
mony and love for all. 

Kathy Mitchell: I was baptized 
into the Church while in the Grand 
Land Singers, besides meeting my 
fiance. Nothing else I could say 
would better express the joy I 
have gained from the group. 

Donald W. Heit: I wish to say 
that the Grand Land Singers is the 
happiest group of young people 



I have ever known. As a returned 
marine from Vietnam, I feel I can 
carry our flag a little higher 
with every song we sing. I am 
very thankful to the Lord for the 
grand land we live in. Let us all 
be worthy of it! 

J. Wayne Haws, adviser: It's re- 
freshing for me to be involved with 
a group of young college students 
who have this enthusiasm and ex- 
citement for our country. It 
proves to me that not all of the 
so-called "turned-on" generation 
is going to pot! There are youth 
who accept the challenge and re- 
sponsibilities of this great coun- 
try, who do love their country and 
will sing to all who listen, express- 
ing their feelings for freedom. 

Laraine Webecke, secretary: In 
1966, I had the rare privilege of 
spending one week in East Ger- 
many as a guest of some relatives. 
All I had ever heard of that coun- 
try was true — inadequate living 
space, cheaply made buildings, 
high prices, low wages, and a feel- 
ing of being alone. I was watching 
some international horse races on 
television being broadcast from a 
West Berlin station when the win- 
ners were announced, and an 




American was one of them. Then 
the band began to play. I have 
never been so touched by our na- 
tional anthem as I was then. Tears 
rolled down my cheeks as I lis- 
tened to it, and I began to under- 
stand and appreciate my great 
blessings of having been born in 
a free country. I knew I had to 
help others gain such an appre- 
ciation. Singing in the Grand Land 
Singers helps me to feel I am ful- 
filling my desire. It is a means 
by which I can actively and per- 
sonally express my true feelings 
about America. It is an oppor- 
tunity to participate, inspiring 
people to appreciate our country's 
priceless freedom. At a time when 
so many young people are demon- 
strating against our country, it is 
exciting to be part of a group that 
is doing some positive demon- 
strating. 

Ray Furgeson: As adviser to the 
Grand Land Singers, I have, the 
opportunity to see behind the 
scenes and witness what goes into 
the making of the outstanding 
presentations given by this group 
of enthusiastic young people. 

As each show date nears, re- 
hearsal pace intensifies, enthusi 
asm is generated, and the unity 
of these young people becomes 
solidified in one direction — to 
project the single message of God 
and country. 

I have seen grown men with 
tears flowing freely down their 
cheeks as they realized the hope 
in the youth of America standing 
before them. This is the way the 
Grand Land Singers are touching 
the hearts of all those who hear 
them. P 



Era of Youth 



The accompanying black and white 
illustrations dealing with highlights 
in the story of the Church in the 
British Isles have recently been -placed 
in the London Temple visitors center. 
Dale Kilbourn is the illustrator : 




The Restored Gospel 

in the 

British Isles 



First Missionaries Arrive 

The first Latter-day Saint mission- 
aries to the British Isles, seven in 
number, arrived in Preston, England, 
during the excitement of election 
day, July 22, 1837, and rejoiced at a 
political banner unfurled over their 
heads: 'Truth Will Prevail." This 
was two days after their landing in 
Liverpool, and 46 days after the 
Prophet Joseph Smith, in Kirtland, 
Ohio, had turned to Elder Heber C. 
Kimball of the Council of the Twelve 
and said : ''Brother Heber, the Spirit 
of the Lord has whispered to me : 'Let 
my servant Heber go to England and 
proclaim my gospel, and open the 
door of salvation to that nation.' " 




The First Baptisms in England 

Only ten days after the missionaries 
arrived in England, nine converts 
were baptized in the River Ribble at 
Preston. So much had the public 
interest been excited that a "con- 
course of between seven and nine 
thousand persons" lined the banks to 
view these first European baptisms 
into a church that had proclaimed the 
visitation of angels and the restora- 
tion of sacred records upon which 
ancient American prophets had 
written. 



April 1969 



57 




The Restored Gospel in Scotland 

In 1840 Elder Orson Pratt went to 
Scotland to coordinate the efforts of 
elders already there and then jour- 
neyed to Edinburgh, where he climbed 
Arthur's Seat, a majestic, rugged hill 
above the castles of Holyrood and 
Edinburgh. There he pleaded with 
the Lord for 200 converts. In less 
than four months that number and 
more had joined the Church in the 
Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Ancrum 
areas. 




Brigham Young Visits London 

Brigham Young, senior member of 
the Council of the Twelve, visited 
London in the fall of 1840, where he 
reviewed the dedicated labors of 
Elder Heber C. Kimball and Elder 
Wilford Woodruff, also of the Coun- 
cil of the Twelve. In four short years 
Elder Young would find himself 
head of the Church and directly re- 
sponsible for leading all Saints, 
including many British members, 
westward to a new Zion. Forty-nine 
years later Elder Woodruff was sus- 
tained as President of the Church. 



58 



Improvement Era 




Charles Dickens Visits 

A "Mormon" Emigrant Ship 

On a "hot morning in June" (June 4, 
1863), the great Victorian novelist 
Charles Dickens boarded the Amazon, 
docked at the London docks, and re- 
corded his impressions for his book 
The Uncommercial Traveler: "I think 
it would be difficult to find eight 
hundred people together anywhere 
else, and find so much beauty and 
so much strength and capacity for 
work among them. ... I went on 
board their ship to bear testimony 
against them if they deserved it, as I 
fully believed they would ; to my 
great astonishment they did not de- 
serve it; and my predispositions and 
tendencies must not affect me as an 
honest witness . . . [for] some re- 
markable influence had produced a 
remarkable result. . . ." 




President McKay and 

the London Temple 

In 1958 President David 0. McKay, 
a missionary to Scotland 61 years 
earlier, returned to the British Isles 
and dedicated the London Temple. It 
was 121 years since the first mission- 
aries had set foot on British soil. The 
temple, built for the eternal joy of all 
who would enter therein, was the 
beginning of the modern era in the 
story of the Church in the British 
Isles, a story that yearly continues to 
add inspirational chapters. 



April 1969 



59 



Survival of the 

BRITISH 
MISSION 

During 
WorldWar II 

By Andre K. Anastasion, Sr. 




Andre K. Anastasion, Sr., acting British Mission presi- 
dent during World War II, was born in Odessa, Russia, 
immigrated to England at 19, and presently resides in 
Bountiful, Utah, where he is teacher trainer in the Val 
Verda Fourth Ward. 



• In July 1937 President Heber J. Grant, who with 
other Church officials was attending the British Mis- 
sion centennial conference in Rochdale, Lancashire, 
made a prophetic statement to the effect that "every 
missionary from Zion will be removed from the 
British Isles." 

On September 3, 1939, Great Britain declared war 
against Nazi Germany. By a joint order of the British 
and United States governments, all U.S. nationals not 
directly involved in the war were to leave the British 
Isles. This affected all of our missionaries from the 
United States. 

By the end of 1939 some 130 missionaries left the 
shores of England. For the first time in 102 years the 
British Mission was left without a single missionary 
from Zion, and the prophecy of President Grant was 
literally fulfilled within two and a half years. 

My two counselors, James P. Hill and James R. 
Cunningham, and I were set apart by President Hugh 
B. Brown, the retiring mission president, prior to his 
departure, and were to assume charge of the British 
Mission. Our appointment was confirmed by a cable 
from the First Presidency. I devoted my full time to 
the mission. 

World War II was soon upon us in all its fury. 
London, the main target, was bombed almost day and 
night, and destruction of property and life was tre- 
mendous. But we remained with the Saints, and the 
Lord blessed us. 



Artwork features President Andre Anastasion as he appeared in 1942, 
and "Ravenslea," the British Mission headquarters during the war. 
The headquarters was at Balham in London. 



Our mission problems were many indeed. We ap- 
pealed to our 68 branches for local missionaries, and 
by the end of the first year we had almost 400 of them, 
ranging in age from 17 to 75. They devoted an aver- 
age of five hours- a week to missionary labors in 
helping the branches and in preaching the gospel. We 
also had 12 British full-time missionaries. In twos 
they stayed about four weeks in each branch, preached 
gospel sermons each Sunday, and then moved on. 
Thus, we were able to cover all the branches of the 
mission. 

But the need for full-time missionaries during the 
war years was great indeed. At one of the Scottish 
District conferences held in Glasgow, when the ques- 
tion of missionaries was raised at the final session, I 
noticed an elderly couple and their daughter sitting 
together to my right on the front row. The daughter 
was using sign language to tell her parents what was 
being said. 

When the final session was over, this young lady, 
Isabella McDonald, approached me somewhat timidly 
and said, "President, my parents are willing for me to 
go on a mission, but we have no financial means." 

"Sister McDonald," I replied, "please tell your par- 
ents that I am grateful for their response and your 
faith to be a missionary. The Lord will open the way 
for you to go. I will be back in London on Monday 
evening and will write you on Tuesday." 

At my desk on Tuesday morning, I began to open 



60 



Improvement Era 




the numerous letters awaiting my attention. As I pro- 
ceeded to open one, I read: "Dear President: I would 
like to support a missionary for six months, and enclose 
my first monthly check." The letter came from a 
British army officer, a member of the Church stationed 
somewhere in France. I immediately sent a letter and 
the check to Sister McDonald, who, in time, fulfilled 
a fine mission. 

Upon receipt of a traveling visa, I went to Ireland 
to visit the districts of the mission. The morning I 
reached Belfast, the city was still smoldering from a 
heavy enemy air raid. Whole streets of houses and 
stores lay in ruins. The population of the city was in a 
state of shock. I spent that week visiting all of our 
members. 

On Sunday we held our annual district conference 
in Belfast. We met in the afternoon on the top floor 
of a labor hall. The small congregation of about forty- 
five people was more than ever united after such a 
frightening air raid. The burden and the need of 
full-time missionaries was again before us, and I rose 
to my feet. Looking to my right, I saw Sister Joan 
Taggart among the Saints. 

"Sister Taggart, I feel to ask you to go on a mission. 
Do you think you will be willing to give six months of 
your time in the service of the Lord?" 

She stood up. "President, I will be willing to go, but 
I have no means to support myself. My mother is a 
widow, and my only brother is in the British Navy. His 



monthly pay is so small that both Mother and I have 
to work." 

"Sister Taggart, I am grateful for your response. I 
am not worried about the money. I want to give you a 
promise that the Lord will open the way and you shall 
have the money needed for your mission." 

"I will be willing to go." 

Then I looked to my left. "Sister Bannatyne," I said, 
"I feel to ask you to go on a short mission. Would you 
be willing to help the Church in these war times?" 

"I am willing to go, but as you know, President, all 
of us five girls at home and our brother have to work 
to support our widowed mother and ourselves." 

"The Lord will bless you and help you, and the way 
will be opened." 

As we sang the closing hymn, a question crept into 
my mind. Where would the money come from? 

After the hymn ended and the closing prayer was 
said, a member of the Dublin Branch came up to me. 
"President, I'll be happy to take care of Sister Taggart 
for six months." As she was writing a check, there, 
stood a brother by the table. "I'll take care of helping 
Sister Bannatyne fulfill her mission." 

Our final session was held in another hall, and the 
congregation was much larger. At the conclusion an 
American army officer spoke to me. "President, it has 
been some time since I have enjoyed such an outpour- 
ing of the Spirit of the Lord. Would you give me an 
opportunity of supporting another missionary?" His 



April 1969 



61 



'The only impression that manifested itself was about the sacrament, 
and I felt that in this sacred ordinance lay the answer..." 



support was gratefully accepted, and another mis- 
sionary was called. 

Entrusted with the financial responsibility of the 
British Mission, I was left a sum of about two hundred 
pounds sterling (then $800) as mission funds, with 
the parting advice to go very carefully with that 
money, because "you may not get any more." From the 
monthly reports coming in, the tithes and fast offer- 
ings were often less than the funds requested by some 
of the branches, and I was constantly concerned about 
how to meet our financial obligations. Letters sent to 
the branch presidencies to encourage members to a 
more faithful observance of the laws of tithing and fast 
offerings had not helped us, and I was afraid that our 
mission reserve would not last long, although we 
economized in every way possible. I was reluctant 
to dictate a letter to the headquarters of the Church 
for financial assistance, bearing in mind the parting 
advice given me. And to close some branches was 
unthinkable. 

"There must be another way," I thought, "a better 
way to solve our financial problems together." Then 
I remembered the counsel of the Lord: "Ask, and ye 
shall receive; knock, and it shall be opened unto 
you. . . ." 

More and more I asked the Lord in prayer for wis- 
dom. One day after fasting, I told my wife that I 
intended to fast the next day also, as I had much on 
my mind. She looked at me very concerned and said, 
"You had better eat tomorrow and fast the next day." 
I followed my wife's advice and then continued alto- 
gether for 35 days, fasting every other day. This I did 
in all humility, having no other reason than to seek 
the Lord's guidance on how to solve our mission's 
financial situation. 

After concluding my days of fasting and communion, 
I related to my counselors that during those 35 days I 
had received no impression at all about money- 
nothing about tithing or fast offerings. The only im- 
pression that manifested itself and continued with me 
was about the sacrament, and I felt the assurance that 
in this sacred ordinance of the restored gospel lay 
the answer and solution to our financial problem. 

Before our annual district conference, we held an 
early sacrament and testimony meeting, and again I 
felt the same impression and assurance. After the 



bread and water had been blessed and passed to each 
one of us, I reflected on what we had done in par- 
taking of the sacrament. We had asked our Heavenly 
Father to bless the bread and water, and we in turn 
had entered into a covenant to take upon ourselves the 
name of his Son, to always remember him, and to keep 
the commandments that he had given us. Then I 
asked those present if we had intelligently and con- 
scientiously realized the covenants we had made, or if 
we had partaken of the sacrament as a matter of pro- 
cedure. We realized that the answer to this could 
only be found within the heart and mind of each one 
personally. I reminded those present of the words of 
the scriptures that the sacrament would be a curse to 
those who would partake unworthily, and suggested 
that each time we partake of the sacrament we should 
silently, with bowed heads, examine our conduct and 
our hearts so that we might always be true to our 
covenants and sacred obligations and manifest an in- 
telligent faith by our works and deeds before the 
Lord. Thus we might enjoy his blessings. 

"None of us would wish to bear false witness. A 
willful or careless disregard in failing to return the 
Lord's ten percent, obeying the Word of Wisdom, or 
observing the spirit of the Sabbath would, in my opin- 
ion, constitute a false witness on our part. One cannot 
partake of the sacrament and bear sacred witness to 
God to follow him and then disregard his instructions," 
I said. 

Then I was led to make this promise: "Your tithes 
and offerings will be returned to you, multiplied a 
hundredfold, as your inheritance in Zion, when the 
Lord shall come again." 

The impression gained from my appeal was such 
that some of our members for a time stopped partaking 
of the sacrament. They understood. But before long 
it was our joy to learn that most of the members were 
again partaking of the sacrament. The branch presi- 
dents were advised not to question those who still 
refrained, but to show them love and kindness, and 
to visit them often. It was particularly stressed that 
those who were called to administer the sacrament 
should repeat the sacrament prayers in a clear voice 
and pronounce each word distinctly and reverently, 
for it was a matter of personal witness and covenant 
between every Latter-day Saint and the Lord. 



62 



Improvement Era 



The British Saints took the appeal 
to heart, and there was evidence of 
sustaining faith and effort on their 
part. The monthly reports coming 
in were most encouraging, and I 
was spared the necessity of writ- 
ing for financial assistance from 
Church headquarters. 

It was almost four and a half 
years before President Brown was 
able to return to England and re- 
sume the responsibility of the 
British Mission. By then we had 
78 branches and 14 districts under 
the local priesthood leadership. 
Over 500 local missionaries had 
labored during the war years. In 
addition, 105 full-time British mis- 
sionaries had rendered fine service. 
Some of them gave of their labor 
and means for six months, some for 
one year, many for two years, and 
one elder for three and a half years. 
Marvelous blessings and faith- 
promoting experiences were wit- 
nessed by missionaries and mem- 
bers. 

The British Mission prospered 
and progressed during the war 
years. Our baptisms were almost 
on a par with the pre-war record. 
And finally, when the mission 
records were transferred to Presi- 
dent Brown, there was a surplus of 
over $80,000 in the mission funds— 
a small token toward the building 
of the temple in the British Isles, 
then (in 1944) only a cherished 
hope. [Fourteen years later the 
temple was built in the County of 
Surrey; it was dedicated on Septem- 
ber 7, 1958, by President David O. 
McKay.] 

We asked the Lord for help, and 
we received intelligence— the light 
of truth— on how to solve, by obedi- 
ence to his commandments, many 
of our mission and individual prob- 
lems, and how to survive in faith 
and limb the crucial years of the 
World War II. o 



April 1969 




BYU GENEALOGY 

RESEARCH TOUR 

TO GREAT BRITAIN 

June25-August4, 1969 





A six-week adventure 

into the heartland of 

our ancestors. Group 

genealogy instruction, 

individual research, t p o II ~ 

discovery excursions 

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g 



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64 







New Regional 
Representative 

The First Presidency has 
appointed Elder Kay A. 
Schwendiman .as a Regional 
Representative of the Council 
of the Twelve, to serve the 
new Servicemen's Stake — 
Europe. He will also assist 
the Military Relations Com- 
mittee. Brother Schwendi- 
man, a former bishop, and 
his wife, Beverly, have 
four children. 



% I 

Brigadier General 

The United States Senate 
recently approved the 
nomination by President 
Richard M. Nixon of Col. 
Otis E. Winn to brigadier 
general in the U.S. Air Force. 
Brother Winn, presently 
serving as chief of transpor- 
tation for the European 
Command, is district presi- 
dent of the Stuttgart 
Servicemen's District of 
the South German Mission. 



Researcher Honored 

Dr. David C. Bacon, 
research coordinator of the 
Stanford University 
School of Engineering and 
associate director of the 
Stanford Electronics 
Laboratories, has been 
elected president of 
the National Council of 
University Research 
Administrators, an 
organization that represents 
nearly all major U.S. 
institutions of higher 
learning. Brother Bacon 
is bishop of the Menlo 
Park (California) Ward, Palo 
Alto Stake. 




Personnel Department Reviewed 

Russell G. Williams, Church Personnel Department 

director; L. R. Brice, executive vice president of 

the American Society for Personnel Administration 

and Elder LeGrand Richards of the Council 

of the Twelve and chairman of the Church Personnel 

Committee recently examined the expanded 

activities of the Church's employee relations. Brother 

Williams, a regional vice president and member 

of the board of directors of the ASPA, is responsible for 

the hiring, employee benefits, standardization of 

policies and procedures, wage and salary program, and 

training and development of about 3,000 

Church headquarters employees who work in some 

40 departments. 



Improvement Era 




Military Relations Committee 

The First Presidency has announced the renaming of the 
Church Servicemen's Committee to the Military Relations 
Committee, with the reappointment of Elder Harold B. Lee 
of the Council of the Twelve, chairman, and Elder Mark E. 
Petersen and Elder Gordon B. Hinckley of the Council 
of the Twelve, members, and the appointment of 



Elder Boyd K. Packer, Assistant to the Council of the Twelve, 
as managing director. The committee's new assignment 
deals with the needs of persons as they prepare for 
military service, while they are on active duty, and after 
they are released. Presently, there are over 26,000 
Latter-day Saints in the military service. 




The Spoken Word 



Richard L. Evans 



Translation Services 

Manager Named 

The Presiding Bishopric has 

appointed John E. Carr 
to be director of the 
Distribution and Translation 
Division for the Church, 
succeeding J. Thomas Fyans, 
who has accepted a position 
as executive vice president 
with Satellite Navigation 
Corporation. Brother Carr, 
formerly the Presiding 
Bishopric's representative 
in Europe and a former 
president of the New England 
States Mission, will direct 
the Church's worldwide 
translation and distribution 
services. Instructional 
materials are presently 
translated into 16 languages. 



. . while you are making other plans" 



Somewhere we have read a sentence that says, "Life is what happens 
to you while you are making other plans." 1 We are all subject to 
unforeseen events. We all need each other. No man ever knows 
when he will need another. "There, but for the grace of God," am I 2 
is an oft-quoted phrase that applies to all people. A person in health, 
successful, happy, never knows when accident or illness or misfortune 
will reverse his situation. We all have reason to be grateful, to keep 
humble, and to acknowledge the Source of all that is ours, and also 
to appreciate other people. And we all must face the reality that few 
things stay the same, except the basic laws and principles and purposes 
—the everlasting things of life, including the limitless possibilities of 
eternal progress. But even when a change improves upon the past, it 
is sometimes difficult to adjust to. Growth is change. Learning is 
change. We never learn anything sincerely and still think quite the 
same. Often we would like to stay where we are, be what we are, do 
what we are doing, keep things forever as they are, freeze life, in a 
sense— or so we suppose. But it isn't possible. Even if we did nothing 
to change, even if we resisted all modifying events, time and age would 
take over. We have to prepare even for what we are unprepared for 
and do the best we can to protect ourselves, to insure ourselves, to keep 
our loved ones close, to keep our lives in health and happiness, to im- 
prove, to repent, to be grateful for all that is good— and to have faith 
and hope even on days that are down and discouraging. And whatever 
happens in the interim, there is solid assurance that life is everlasting, 
and that eternal progress is its purpose, with justice and mercy, and 
with hope and faith more than equal to all our fears and frustrations. 
"Life is what happens while you are making other plans." 

W |. Marshall. 

2 )ohn Bradford, "Works," Vol. 2 (also credited to others, including Richard Baxter, ]ohn Bunyan, |.ohn Wesley). 

*"The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, pre- 
sented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting System February 9, 1969. Copyright 1969. 



April 1969 



65 



A New Look at the 

Pearl of Great Price 

Part 7 

(Continued) 



The 
Unknown 
Abraham 



By Dr. Hugh Nibley 




Abraham, from an etching by the Dutch painter 
Rembrandt (1606-1669), "Hagar leaving Abraham." 



• Which C/fP-But we have still to deal with Ur of 
the Chaldees— where was that? It is interesting that 
the Book of Abraham only speaks of "the land of Ur, 
of Chaldea," as if to distinguish it from other Urs, and 
takes us not to the famous city or to some great temple 
for the sacrifice, but to a typical panegyris in an open 
plain. Though the Bible does not tell us where "Ur of 
the Chaldees" was, commentators ancient and modern 
have generally agreed with Beer's dictum that "the 
sense of the biblical information definitely points to 
Abraham's birthplace in northern or northeastern 
Mesopotamia." 4 ' Today H. C. L. Gibson concludes 
that Genesis 24:4, 7 "seems unmistakably to imply 
that the place of Abraham's nativity was Aram Naha- 
raim," in northern Mesopotamia. ' ' A famous commen- 
tary of "Eumolpus" states that Abraham was born "in 
Kamarina, which some call Una, meaning City of the 



Chaldeans," following which many scholars have 
sought the prophet's birthplace in Urfa, once called 
Urhoi, near Edessa. 4 ' "The learned disagree as to the 
place where Abraham was born," wrote Tha'labi, 
following the learned Jewish informants of his day. 
"Some say it was in Susa in the land of Ahwaz [Ahwaz 
in Kusistan, ancient Susiana], while some say it was 
in Babylon in the land of Suwadi in the region called 
Kutha; and some say it was in Warka [Uruk, Erech]. 
. . . Others say he was born in Harran, but that his 
father took him to Babel." !fi While some have located 
his birthplace at Kamarina in Armenia or Asia Minor, 
others have found it at the other end of the world in 
distant Suza. 47 Maimonides read in the books of the 
Sabaeans that' Abraham grew up in Koutha, which 
some locate just south of Baghdad and others in the 
heart of Iran. 4S 



66 



Improvement Era 



What adds to the confusion and the license of 
speculation is the high mobility of Abraham's people, 
Hahiru, meaning " 'Refugees' or 'displaced persons,' ' 
as Gibson notes, for which reason he would view 
them either at Ur or Harran as mere temporary resi- 
dents—campers, in fact. 1 " Typical of the confusion is 
the momentous debate about the young Abraham's 
ten-year imprisonment: one school says that he was 
in jail seven years in Kardi and three in Kntha, and 
the other that it was three years in Kardi and seven 
in Kutha. " It is interesting that the youthful Abraham, 
like the youthful Joseph Smith ( and even the youthful 
Jesus), 51 seems to have been in trouble with his society, 
and though today the legends reach us only through 
the pro- Abraham channels, it is obvious that he caused 
a great stir and annoyance in his society. When we 
read of an obscure and innocuous young man exciting 
general uproar throughout the length of Mesopotamia 
or causing a mighty monarch to spend sleepless nights, 
we smile and brush the thing aside as the stuff of 
legend; the overwhelming verdict of scholarship for 
the past century, in fact, has detected in the name of 
Abraham only a code word to designate a large tribal 
movement. Such things, we say, just don't happen in 
real life. Only oddly enough, there is an exception— 
in the case of real prophets they do happen, as modern 
history attests. What would students say 3,500 years 
from now to the proposition that thousands of years 
before there lived a naive, uneducated, and guileless 
country boy in a small village somewhere in the woods 
beyond what were known as the Allegheny Mountains, 
who by a few tactless and unbelievably artless remarks 
created the greatest excitement in the large seaboard 
cities of the continent, was hotly denounced in thou- 
sands of pulpits throughout the civilized world, and 
was given front-page coverage in the major news- 
papers of the capitals of Europe? Could a less plaus- 
ible story be imagined? Abraham probably had a 
much smaller and more compact population to impress, 
and in the great cult-places he had a perfect means 
for spreading his teaching throughout the world. 

Nachmanides and Tha'labi report respectable tradi- 
tions that Abraham was born in southern Mesopo- 
tamia, but that his family moved north immediately 
after his birth."- Another tradition, reported by 
Tha'labi, reverses the order: ". . . some say he was 
born in Harran, but that his father took him to Babel." 
Still other traditions have it that for fear of Nimrod 
the family took the newborn Abraham south and 
settled at Warka. 5 - The very old Book of Judith 
5:6-8 supports the story of a flight to the south after 
a birth in the north. A common legend is that Nim- 
rod's army, after failing to catch young Abraham at 



home, returned to Babylon by a march of 40 days, a 
march which Ka'b al-Akhbar describes in terms of a 
genuine migration of Nimrod's people, "with their 
goods and their families and their children ... to the 
land of Iraq," i.e. from the north." 3 In all accounts 
the journey between Abraham's childhood home and 
Babylon is a long one. Just as there are episodes and 
aspects of early Latter-day Saint history which may 
never be cleared up because of the individual and 
collective mobility of the people, so, Theodore Bohl 
reminds us, "we must not underestimate the great 
mobility and historical memory of the Patriarchs.""' 1 

At the same time Bohl observes that "the key figure" 
to the patriarchal history is Nimrod"' 1 — and in the his- 
tory of Nimrod two things are outstanding, M. Gemoll 
discovers: (1) "he always turns up as a contemporary 
of Abraham," and (2) his activities take place in the 
north countries."' 5 This is a reminder that "the valley 
nortlucard" from the Plain of Shinar in very early 
times was called "Nimrod . . . after the mighty hunter," 
in all probability an ancestor of our friend. ( See Eth. 
2:1.) Most commentators in the past identified Ur of 
the Chaldees with Babel simply because Nimrod, who 
plays such an important role in the early life of Abra- 
ham, ruled at Babel; 50 but he ruled there only after 
having conquered the land and added it to his empire, 
his home base being to the north."' 7 Micah 5:5 places 
"the land of Nimrod" in Assyria, and the Sibylline 
writings say that he built his famous tower in Assyria/' 8 
His original kingdom was Shinar (Sinear), and there 
are a number of very old traditions that after the 
generation of Noah the people deserted the inspired 
leadership of Shem, "migrated east to the land of 
Sinear, a great plain, and there threw off the govern- 
ment of heaven and made Nimrod their king." 51 ' 
"Tradition has it," writes Beer, "that Shinear is the 
plain of northern Mesopotamia, ruled over by Nim- 
rod." 00 Though H. Altmann maintains that the name 
Shinear designates Babylonia in general whenever it 
appears in the Bible, he goes on to point out that "the 
classical Singara, Gebel Singar was in northeastern 
Mesopotamia," being in the time of Abraham "an 
integral part of the kingdom of Mitanni." 61 Nachma- 
nides says that when Terah left the "Hamitic" land of 
Shinear, he went south to Mesopotamia, and again 
after the birth of Abraham he returned to "the land 
of the Chaldees in the north." - Bohl says that in 
Abraham's day Sinear denoted not the Babylonian 
plain but a city-state on the middle Euphrates. ' 

One may hold with T. E. Peet.that there may origi- 
nally have been separate Ur and Haran traditions 
about Abraham that have nothing to do with each 
other, 01 but none may deny the importance of Harran 



April 1969 



67 




Every city labeled at the southern and northern extremities of Meso- 
potamia has been claimed by scholars as the authentic birthplace 
of Abraham. All are agreed that he sojourned at the places indi- 

and the north country in the early family background 
of the patriarch. Haran and Nahor are twin cities in 
the north, and Haran was the name of Abraham's 
brother while Nahor was his grandfather; Terah, 
Serug, and Peleg are all names of towns near Haran/'" 
However dubious the status of the southern Ur, "there 
can be little doubt," Gibson reminds us, "concerning 
the authenticity of the tradition connecting the Patri- 
archs with the Harran district." 00 Kordu-Qardi, where 
Abraham was imprisoned, has been identified with 
Hatra and with a place called Ur near Nisibis; Moses 
Landau said it was Kardi in Bythinia, and others 
identify it with the Kurdish country. 07 Indeed. 
Tha'labi insists that Nimrod was a Kurd. 08 Though 
from the Cassite period on all of Babylonia was known 
as Karduniash, which is also the rendering of Chaldca 
in the Amarna Tablets, 011 "the appearance of the 
Kaldu in southern Babylonia is considerably later than 
the vaguely accepted but unprovable dating of Abra- 
ham," according to C. J. Gadd, who points out that 
"if Abraham lived about the time of the 1st Dynasty 
of Babylon, the Babylonian Ur was not then 'of the 
Chaldees,' " while on the other hand "if his time was 
later, the Babylonian Ur was ... of little importance, 
and the northern orientation of the Abraham stories 
would then correspond better with the historical situa- 
tion." 70 That is, any way we look at it, Abraham's 
"Ur of the Chaldees" was not the great city of the 
south identified in the 1920's by Sir Leonard Woolley. 
As Gordon points out, "there are two Chaldean locali- 
ties quite distant from each other," 71 and while the 
northern Chaldea seems to go back to prehistoric 
times, the "Chaldees" held sway in the south of Sumer 
only in later times— long after Abraham. 7 '- The Chal- 



cated in Palestine. The relationship between the three areas in the 
life of Abraham has proven as devious and complicated as the 
astronomical problem of three bodies. 

deans are designated as Kesed in the Hebrew Old 
Testament, and that name also points to the north, 
where the descendants of Kesed "established them- 
selves opposite to Shinear, where they founded the 
city of Kesed, the city whence the Chaldees are called 
Kasdim." 7 " Gensenius identified Ur of the Chaldees 
with the northern Assyrian province of Arpakshad = 
Arpa-kesed or "Chaldean Country." 74 

The Genesis account, according to Kraeling, has 
the line of Shem begin in upper Mesopotamia and 
pass through Eber and his son Peleg to Terah and 
his son Haran. 75 The "Cave of Treasures" recounts 
that in Terah's time the black arts appeared "in the 
city of Ur, which had been built by Horon, the son 
of Eber." 70 A "Sabaean" source reports that it was 
Noah who built the city of Harran upon leaving the 
Ark, and that "near Harran is the Sabaean temple on 
the hill which was raised by Abraham"— another early 
high-place connected with Abraham. 77 Though the 
name of Jacob is at home in northern (not southern) 
Mesopotamia, that of Abram "is commoner in the 
Phoenician than in the Aramaic group," 78 and in one 
of the oldest Abraham stories the two counselors of 
Nimrod are Jectan of the line of Japheth (a humane 
person and the friend of Abraham) and Phenech, a 
Phoenician, 70 putting the story in the Syro-Phoenician 
area. Terah's second wife and the mother of Sarah 
was Nahariath, "the Naharaim woman" 80 — wherever 
we look the family names take us to that part of 
western Asia from which the blood of the Pharaohs 
was replenished from time to time. 

There have always been arguments for placing 
Abraham's Ur both in the south and in the north; 
"traditions of respectable antiquity exist in favor of 



68 



Improvement Era 



both places," as Gadd puts it, both in the Ur of south- 
ern Sumer and "in the northwest, the neighborhood 
of Harran." 81 E. G. Kraeling, H. W. F. Saggs, E. M. 
Speiser, R. de Vaux, and W. F. Leamans are among 
the defenders of a southern Ur, 8 - while H. Gunkel, 
W. F. Albright, M. Parrot, C. Gordon, and Z. Mayani 
are for the north, as were formerly B. Beer, M. Gemoll, 
and F. Oppert. 83 As to the meaning of the word Ur, 
"modern opinion is equally divided," according to 
B. Z. Wacholder, between the Sumerian (southern) 
uru, "city," and the Babylonian uru-uniki, "the seat of 
light" (cf. Olishem and Potiphar's Hill). 84 One may 
realize how foolish it is to dogmatize at this point when 
one considers that while Thebes was the capital of 
Egypt for 200 years, the great city of Tanis, which may 
have been Abraham's Egyptian residence and which 
was the capital for 350 years, has to this day never 
been located. 85 

What leaves the door wide open to discussion is 
the existence in western Asia of a number of different 
Urs. Ur in the south was a great trade center once, 
and since Abraham was a merchant, one should expect 
to find him there. But on the other hand that same Ur 
had founded merchant colonies far to the north and 
west at an early date, and some of those settlements, 
as was the custom, bore the name of the mother city. 811 
Hence, C. S. Gordon maintains that "Jhe Ur of the 
Chaldees where Abraham was born seems to have 
been one of the northern Urs," "a commercial settle- 
ment in the general area of Harran," founded by the 
mother city about 2000 b.c. 87 That would explain 
Abraham's association with a city of Ur as well as 
the inescapable northern affinities of the Abraham 
traditions. What suggested a northern Ur in the first 
place was the impossible detour of a route from Ur 
in Sumer to Canaan via Harran. 88 The best-informed 
scholars of Joseph Smith's time thought of Ur as lying 
about 150 miles due east of Harran. 89 The legends 
also have the young Abraham living on the northern 
route: the best customers for his father's idols, we 
are told, were caravaneers on their way from Fandana 
in Syria to Egypt to barter Syrian goods for papyrus." 
According to the Pseudo-Philo, Abraham migrated 
directly west from the scene of Nimrod's tower into 
Canaan, 91 and Jubilees (12:12) reports that when 
Abraham had to get out of the country in a hurry 
after destroying the idols, he fled directly to Lebanon. 
All of which puts Abraham's home squarely on the 
northern route. Even in the Bible, Gordon insists, "all 
the connections of the Patriarchal narratives are 
northern, with no trace of direct contact with Sumer 
and Akkad," and the accumulation of new documents 
tends ever more to favor the northern Ur. 92 



Nimrod-Pharaoh: In getting Abraham onto 
Egyptian territory, we have also to consider the ques- 
tion: What can Nimrod the Asiatic terror possibly 
have to do with Pharaoh? A good deal, to judge by 
the legends, in which the two are constantly confused 
and interchanged. In the Clementine Recognitions 

* 

The Spoken Word 

Richard L. Evans 



To see something get going 



Life/' said Benjamin Disraeli, "is a tumble about 
thing of ups and downs,"— with its sick hurry, 
its divided aims," Matthew Arnold added. There 
are times when all of us feel overburdened, with 
debts, with obligations, so many things undone, so 
many undone things to do— worries, problems, and 
sometimes our share, it seems, of sorrows. And we 
wonder how we can be everywhere we ought to be, 
do all we ought to do, meet the obligations, and 
carry the weight of our worries, as we seem to divide 
ourselves in too many different directions, too many 
ways at once— not feeling that we are completing 
or disposing of or quite in control of anything— 
just a reshuffling of papers, a reshuffling of problems. 
To all of this, some gentle advice from an unnamed 
source proposes the "one-at-a-time" approach: 
"Mountains viewed from a distance," it says, "seem 
to be unscalable, but they can be climbed, and 
the way to begin is to take the first upward step. 
From that moment the mountains are less high. 
The slopes that seem so steep from a distance 
seem to level off as we near them." Any task in life 
is easier if we approach it with the one-at-a-time atti- 
tude. One step— a beginning: doing something about 
something, beginning to see something get going- 
gives assurance that we are on our way and that 
the solving of problems is possible. To cite a whimsi- 
cal saying: "If you chase two rabbits, both of them 
will escape." No one is adequate to everything all 
at once. We have to select what is important, what 
is possible, and begin where we are, with what we 
have. And if we begin— and if we keep going— the 
weight, the worry, the doubt, the depression will 
begin to lift, will begin to lighten. We can't do 
everything always, but we can do something now, 
and doing something will help to lift the weight and 
lessen the worry. "The beginning," said Plato, "is 
the most important part." 

*"The Spoken Word" from Temple 
Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting System 
January 26, 1969. Copyright 1969. 



April 1969 



69 



" ... the Pharaohs really were 
concerned with the validity of 
their claim to divine authority. 



(3:61) the dispensations of the gospel, following an 
ancient Jewish formula, are given as ten, each being 
established by a prophet and revelator who finds 
himself opposed by a satanic rival and pretender; 
when we get to Abraham (the third dispensation), 
we expect his opponent, in view of the rabbinic tradi- 
tions, to be Nimrod, but it is not: it is Pharaoh. Why 
is that? In the legends, B. Chapira notes, "Nimrod has 
become the equivalent of Pharaoh," yet he is already 
Pharaoh in the oldest of the legends, the one edited by 
Chapira himself. 928 Wacholder has noted that while 
Nimrod is indeed the archenemy in the rabbinical ac- 
counts, in the older "Hassidic" versions he is Pharaoh, a 
clear indication that the original stories go back to a 
time "when Egypt was a major power," when "the en- 
counter between Pharaoh and the traveler from Ur of 
the Chaldees seemed a crucial event in the history of 
mankind"; only later, "in the rabbinic sources, Abram's 
journey to Egypt is relatively ignored." 011 W. Foerster 
has observed that "the highlights of . . . divine action" 
in the history of Israel are "firstly, the basic event of 
Abraham's call, God's covenant . . . secondly, the de- 
liverance from the 'furnace of Egypt.' " 9 ' The furnace 
of Egypt is here the equivalent of the "furnace of 
the Chaldees," the most venerable epithet of Abraham 
being "he who was delivered from the furnace of the 
Chaldees. ""•"' Of the moment of delivery a very old 
account says, "From that day until today it is called 
Kaladwon, [signifying] what God said to the children 
of Israel: It is I who brought you forth from Egypt!' " iir ' 
The confusion of Egypt and Chaldea in the Abraham 
story is typical. 

The legends make Hagar an Egyptian woman of 
the royal court and even a daughter of Pharaoh, 97 
so that when the old Jerusalem Targum on Jeremiah 
says that Hagar belonged to those very people who 
threw Abraham into the furnace, we are obliged to 
view his attempted sacrifice as an Egyptian show. 98 
Even more specific is the Pseudo-Jonathan, which re- 
ports that Hagar was "the daughter of Pharaoh, the 
son of Nimrod," which makes Nimrod, if not a 
Pharaoh, the father of one. 9s It is interesting that 
there is no sign of Pharaoh on the scene in Facsimile 
No. 1, while in Facsimile No. 3 the royal family fills 
the stage: it is quite possible that after overcoming 



the antipathy of the father in Asia, Abraham should 
sometime later have been royally received by the son 
in Egypt— but this is the merest speculation. In one 
of the better-known stories, when Sarah lost her tem- 
per with Hagar (and it is significant that we have 
here the same sort of rivalry between Sarah, the true 
"princess," and Hagar the Egyptian woman as we do 
between Abraham and Nimrod), she complained to 
Abraham, accusing her rival of being "the daughter of 
Pharaoh, of Nimrod's line, he who once cast thee into 
the furnace!" 99 Having Pharaoh as a son or descendant 
of Nimrod neatly bridges the gap between Asia and 
Egypt: one of the most famous foreign potentates to 
put a son on the throne of Egypt did in fact bear 
the name of Nimrod— we shall have more to say of 
him later. 

The sort of thing that used to happen may be 
surmised from an account in the Sefer ha-Yashar, 
according to which "at the time Abraham went into 
Canaan there was a man in Sinear called Rakion [also 
Rikyan, Rakayan, suggesting the famous Hyksos ruler 
Khian]. . . . He went to King Asverus [cf. Osiris] in 
Egypt, the son of Enam. At that time the King of 
Egypt showed himself only once a year." In Egypt 
this Rakion by trickery raised a private army and so 
was able to impose a tax on all bodies brought for 
burial to the cemetery. This made him so rich that 
he went with a company of a thousand richly dressed 
youths and maidens to pay his respects to Asverus, 
who was so impressed that he changed the man's name 
to Pharaoh, after which Rikian judged the people of 
Egypt every day while Asverus only judged one day 
in the year. 10 " This would not be the first or the last 
time that a usurping Asiatic forced a place for himself 
on the throne, but the ritual aspects of the tale— the 
annual appearance of Osiris, the rule over the necropo- 
lis, the 1,000 youths and maidens (as in the story of 
Solomon and Queen Bilqis ) — are also conspicuous. 
We are also told that that wily Asiatic who came to 
the throne by violence and trickery was the very 
Pharaoh who would take Sarah to wife. 101 Since the 
Pharaonic lines all went back to Asiatic or Libyan 
families, the question of legitimacy could be handled, 
and no one disputes that Nimrod was of the blood 
of Ham through Canaan, or that the Pharaohs were 
also of the blood of Ham— on those points all sources 
agree. 

The close resemblance between Nimrod's treatment 
of Abraham and Pharaoh's treatment of Moses has 
often been noted. 1 "- And just as the careers of Abra- 
ham and Moses can be closely and significantly 
matched (which is not surprising, since the founders 
and makers of dispensations of the gospel necessarily 



70 



Improvement Era 



have almost identical missions), so in the Koran, Nim- 
rod and Pharaoh represent a single archtype— that of 
the supremely successful administrator who thinks he 
should rule everything. 10 ' 1 Likewise in the Koran (Sura 
40:37) it is not Nimrod who builds the tower to get 
to heaven, but Pharaoh— a significant substitution. 
Even in the Jewish accounts, Pharaoh and Nimrod 
are like identical twins: both call themselves "the 
Great Magician," 1 " 1 try to pass themselves off as God, 
order all the male children to be put to death, study 
the heavens, pit the knowledge and skill of their wise 
men against the powers of the prophet." 11 The palace 
in which Nimrod shuts up the expectant mothers has 
conspicuous parallels in Egyptian literature, and is 
designated in the Jewish traditions as the Palace of 
Assuerus— the Osiris or King of Egypt in the Rikan 
story above. 100 When the young Moses refuses to wor- 
ship Pharaoh as the young Abraham does Nimrod, 
the idolatrous priests accuse both heroes of magic and 
trickery, the converts of both are put to death by the 
king, the subjects of both rulers offer up their children 
to idols, and Pharaoh like Nimrod finally declares war 
on God and builds a great tower, which falls. 107 

One can appreciate the wisdom of the rabbinic 
distinction between Pharaoh and Nimrod, without 
which the wires would be hopelessly crossed between 
a Moses and an Abraham who go through identical 
routines with the same antagonist— Pharaoh. Yet in 
the original versions it was Pharaoh in both cases: 
the Nimrod who calls his magicians and wise men to 
counter the claims of Abraham, who loses the contest 
and ends up bestowing high honors on his guest, turns 
up as Pharaoh in the Genesis Apocryplion, the oldest 
known version of the story. But we have to do here 
with a characteristic and repeated episode— this repe- 
tition of motifs does not begin with Jewish specula- 
tions. The Battle of the Magicians, in which Pharaoh's 
authority is defended against the pretensions of a dark 
adversary, is a favorite theme of Egyptian literature 
and goes back to the prehistoric ritual rivalry of Horus 
and Seth. It also happens that the Pharaohs really 
were concerned with the validity of their claim to 
divine authority, so that the actual history of Egypt 
can be partially interpreted in terms of Pharaoh's 
dealings with those who presume to challenge his right 
and power— the documents of Ramses II are eloquent 
on this subject, but no more so than those of the kings 
of Babylon and Assyria, so that we need not assume 
that the stories of Abraham are simply borrowings 
from late Egyptian romances. Kings have always been 
hypersensitive to the operations of rivals, pretenders, 
relatives, and popular religious leaders. 

More in the nature of myths are the extravagant 



infancy stories of Abraham and Moses, parallels of 
which may be found in India and Java, though the 
Egyptian versions are the oldest known. 1 ns There are 
close resemblances between the infancy tales of Moses 
and the infant Horus, 109 but even closer between the 
latter and the infancy stories of Abraham: Horus's 
mother, like Abraham's, hides the newborn child in 
a cave and goes about "as a vagabond and beggar for 
fear of the Evil One, seeking support for the child." 11 " 
Both babies are sustained in the cave by being given a 
finger to suck, 111 and it is common knowledge that the 
baby Abraham was miraculously supplied with milk 
and honey either from his own fingers ( and the infant 
Horus is commonly represented sucking his finger), 
those of an angel, or from the dripping stalactites of 
the cave. 11 - Now, though Abraham's mother goes by 
many names, the commonest one is Emtelai, which 
scholars early recognized as a form of Amalthea, 
Amalthea being the goddess who took the form of a 
goat and suckled the infant Zeus with milk and honey 
in the Dictaean Cave. n:i Though the mothers of Horus 
and Abraham both fear that their child has expired 
of hunger in the cave, they find the babes filling the 
place with a miraculous radiance shining from the 
infant faces. 111 Heller noted that while the stories of 
the infant Jesus are also very close to those of Moses 
and Abraham, they come closest of all to the cycle 
of the infant Joseph. 115 In every case the tales point to 
Egypt— even Jesus immediately after his birth is taken 
to Egypt, which is the scene of the infancy gospels. 110 
Where we get these characteristic and repeated 
stories, the ritual element is not far from the surface. 
Thus, when Abraham is washed, anointed, clothed in 
a garment, and fed with bread and wine and/or milk 
and honey in the cave, we cannot escape reference 
to the basic ordinances of temple and church. 117 Or 
when Abraham, after escaping death on the altar, an 
event which he is said to have considered as the 
equivalent of his own resurrection, 1 ls goes to his eleven 
companions who are hiding out in the hills and there 
instructs them for 40 days in the mysteries, who can 
fail to recall the "40-day" accounts of the resurrected 
Lord? 110 And what are we to make of it when we 
find the completest version of the story of the at- 
tempted sacrifice of Abraham in an early Eastern 
Christian tale in which the hero is not Abraham but 
St. Elias? 1 -" The fact that the St. Elias stoiy turns up 
in the very place where Abraham is supposed to have 
suffered offers another illustration of the astounding 
survival of very ancient history in local legends 
throughout the Near East. But the ritual infancy 
stories? There is no reason in the world why we 
should regard them as originating with Abraham or 



April 1969 



71 



Moses, to whose biographies they have been con- 
veniently annexed. Such doublets and repetitions are, 
as Gordon reminds us, "typical of Near Eastern litera- 
ture . . . the taste of the Bible world called for duplica- 
tion," as when Joseph and Pharaoh have identical 
prophetic dreams 121 — to say nothing. of Nephi and Lehi. 
However annoying we may find it, it is important 
to realize that we are dealing here with neither pure 
history nor pure myth— indeed, in the strictest sense 
neither history nor myth is ever completely pure. How 
the two may be mixed is dramatically illustrated in 
the case of Nimrod's notorious boast: It was when 
Abraham called upon Nimrod to acknowledge God as 
the giver of life that the latter intoned what has ever 
since been his slogan and device : "It is I who give life 
and I who take it away!" The historical part of the 
thing is that this actually was the slogan of the 
Pharaohs from the earliest times. When the king first 
appears in the Pyramid Text as the conquering hero 
from the East spreading terror before him, his heralds 
announce to all the world: "If he wants you to live, 
you live! If he wants you to die, you die!" 1 -- And at 
the coronation of later kings the Pharaoh was intro- 
duced to his subjects as "the Merciful One who gives 
you back your heads!" 123 Finally, in the silver sar- 
cophagus of Sheshonki I, the founder of the 22nd 
Dynasty, is a cryptogramatic inscription in which the 
king boasts that (as Horus) he slays the slayers of 
Osiris and also is "the Great One who grants life 
as the Living One." 124 This particular Sheshonk was 
the son of a great warlord named Nimrod, whom 
Petrie believed to be an Elamite from Asia, the leader 
of a band of warriors, who made himself useful to 
Pharaoh and finally seized the throne; he was noted 
for his piety, and in founding a new dynasty also 
restored the old rites of human sacrifice; he also was 
the one Pharaoh most closely tied to Israel, marrying 
his daughter to King Solomon and later conquering 
Palestine and financing his empire with the plunder 
of the Temple of Jerusalem. It is an interesting coinci- 
dence that the name of Sheshonk ( or Shishaq ) is the 
one hieroglyphic word readily identified and unani- 
mously agreed upon by the Egyptologists who have 
commented on Facsimile No. 2, where the name ap- 
pears as Figure 8. How all this fits into the picture 
remains to be seen. o 

(To be continued) 

FOOTNOTES 

43 B. Beer, Leben Abrahams, p. 99, noting that Gen. 11:28 allows 
only a general inference. 

«H. C. L. Gibson, in Journal of Semitic Studies, Vol. 7 (1962), pp. 
54-55. 

4 =B. Z. Wacholder, in Hebrew Union College Annual, Vol. 34 (1963), 
p. 99. 

^Tha'labi, Qissas al-Anbiyah (Cairo, 1922), p. 51. 

17 H. Weill, Biblical Legends of the Muslims (1856), p. 47. The Eumol- 
pus text is in R. Riessler, Altjiidisches Schrifttum (Heidelberg, 1966), 
p. 11. 

■"Maimonides, Dalalat, Vol. 3, pp. 217-19. 



4!) Gibson, op. cit., p. 58. 

"°H. Schiitzinger, Vrsprung des Abraham-Nimrod Legendes, p. 151; 
Beer, op. cit., p. 14. 

01 See our article in The Instructor, January 1965, pp. 35-37. 

52 Tha'labi, op. cit., p. 52; Beer, op. cit., p. 98. 

" :! Ka'b al-Akhbar, text in Revue des Etudes Juives, Vol. 70 (1920), p. 
39; B. Chapira, in Revue des Etudes Juives, Vol. 69 (1919), pp. 97, 
103f; bin Gorion, Sagen der Juden, Vol. 2, p. 4. 

•^T. Boehl, in Ex Oriente Lux, Vol. 17, p. 131. 

"'M. Gemoll, Israeliten und Hykos (Leipzig, 1913), p. 31. 

r,c The Talmud, Midrash, and Arabic sources follow this line of reason- 
ing, according to Beer, Leben Abrahams, pp. 97-98. 

•"""Nimrod became king over the children of Ham and founded his 
empire in Babel, Erech, Akkad and the Land of Sinear," b. Gorion, 
Sagen der Juden, Vol. 2, p. 25; Bar Hebraeus, Chron. 1:8 (Budge). 

as Sibylline Oracles, c. 99. 

r,!V P. Rab. Eliezer, cit. Beer, Leben Abrahams, p. 7: Pseudo-Philo, 
VII, 1-VIII, 1. 

°°Beer, op. cit., pp. 98-100. 

nl A. Altmann, Biblical Motifs (Harvard University Press, 1966), p. 76. 

02 Beer, op. cit., p. 98. 

G;i Boehl, Ex Oriente Lux, Vol. 17, pp. 13 If. 

"'T. E. Peet, Egypt and the Old Testament (Liverpool, 1922), p. 57. 

^Gen. 10:25, 11:20-23, 16-19. 

"'Gibson, Journal of Semitic Studies, Vol. 7, p. 54. 

""Wacholder, op. cit. 

IK Tha'labi, op. cit., p. 51. 

°"F. Hommel, Geographic und Geschichte des alten Orients (Munich, 
1904), p. 357, n. 1013. 

70 C. J. Gadd, in D. W. Thomas (ed.), Archaeology and Old Testament 
Study (Oxford, 1967), p. 94. 

71 C. Gordon, in Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 17, p. 30. 

7 -Ch. Virolleaud's insistence, in I Ethnographic, N.S. 48 (1953), 
pp. 3ff, that Chaldea was always a designation of Sumer and that its 
inhabitants were always called Chaldeans rests on a circular argument. 

T:i Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, Vol. 1, p. 299. 

74 Cit., M. Gemoll, op. cit., p. 35. 

T "C. E. Kraeling, in Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 66 (1947). 
p. 290. 

"•Gave of Treasures 26:1. 

77 M. Chwolsohn, Die Sabaccr (Moscow, 18.56), Vol. 2, pp. 553f. 

7S Gibson, op. cit., p. 51. 

7,l Pseudo-Philo 6:14. 

S0 Cave of Treasures 28:17. 

S 'C. J. Gadd, op. cit., pp. 93f. 

8i R. de Vaux, in Revue Biblique, Vol. 72 (1965), p. 19; C. E. Krae- 
ling, Brooklyn Museum Papyri, p. 6. W. F. Leemans, in Ex Oriente Lux. 
Vol., pp. 436-37. 

S3 M. Gemoll, Israel and the Hyksos, pp. 32-35; Beer, op. cit., p. 99; 
Z. Mavani, Lcs Hykos et le Monde de la Bible (Paris: Payot, 1956), pp. 
218ff.' 

S4 Wacholder, op. cit., p. 101. 

ssj. von Beckenrath, Tanis u. Theben (Gliickstadt, J. J. Augustin, 
1951), p. 31. 

^'Oppenheim, in Journal of American Or. Society, Vol. 74 (1954). 
pp. 6-13; Gordon, Before the Bible, pp. 27, 288f. 

s^Gordon, op. cit., pp. 27, 56, and JNES, Vol. 17 (1958), pp. 28ff. 

ssBeer, op. cit., p. 99; Gordon, JNES, Vol. 17, p. 30. 

S! W. Hales, Analysis, etc. Vol. 2, p. 108. 

""Apocalypse of Abraham 2:3. 

»iPseudo-PhiIo 7:2, 8:1. 

^Gordon, Before the Bible, p. 287. 

"-aB. Chapira, in Revue des Etudes Juives, Vol. 69 (1919), p. 101. 

! «Wacholder, op. cit., Vol. 35 (1964), p. 43. 

04 W. Foerster, From the Exile to Christ (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 
1964), p. 141. 

!)5 e.g., in the Song of Debbora and Barach, in Ps. Philo, 32:1. 

""Falasha Anthology, p. 28, n. 195. 

97 B. Chapira, in Revue des Etudes Juives, Vol. 69, pp. 94 and 59:5; 
bin Gorion, Sagen der Juden, Vol. 2, p. 188. 

08 Beer, op. cit., p. 148. 

"Beer, op. cit., p. 35, n. 341. 

100 bin Gorion, op. cit., pp. 148-53. 

101 Beer, op. cit., p. 128. 

102 Esp. by I. Levi, in Revue des Etudes Juives, Vol. 48 (1904). 
pp. 8-11; and Vol. 59 (1910), pp. 9ff. 

i° : 'B. Heller, in R.E.J. , Vol. 98, p. 17. 

1MB. Chapira, R.E.J. , Vol. 69, p. 94; Yalkut 182; Cor. 28:38. 

105 Chapira, loc. cit., and I. Loeb, R.E.J., Vol. 4 (1882), p. 304. 

""Chapira, R.E.J. , Vol. 69, p. 94, n. 3. 

k> 7 G. Weill, Biblical Legends of the Muslims, pp. 91ff, 105f, 109, 
117, 120, etc. 

10S M. Cosquin who discovered the legends in the Far East believes 
them to have originated there; I. Levi, R.E.J., Vol. 59, p. 11. 

looy. Vikentiev, "Horus et Moise," in Annales du Service, Vol. 48, 
pp. 21-41. 

llu Sander-Hanseh, Metternichstele, p. 11, Spr. XIV. 

1U E. A. W. Budge, Egyptian Religion, p. 71. 

"-For the finger stories, B. Chapira in R.E.J., Vol. 69, p. 95. 

113 Ernst Fiirstenthal, Abraham (Berlin: Jiidische Buch-Vereinigugn, 
1936), Part 1, contains the fullest collection of Emtelai stories, in 
romantic form. 

^Sander-Hansen, op. cit., p. 71, Spr. XIV. 

" 5 B. Heller, in R.E.J. , Vol. 69, p. 95. 

™The Instructor, January 1965, pp. 35-37. 

117 Chapira, loc. cit. 

ns Beer, op. cit., p. 113. 

»°Pseudo-Philo 6:18. 

120 In G. Foucart, Bibliotheque d'Etudes Coptes, Vol. 1 (Cairo: Institut 
Francais d'archeologie Orientale, 1919), Fol. Vr. to XIII. 
121 C. Gordon, in Christianity Today, Nov. 23, 1959, p. 132. 

"-Pyramid Texts, Nos. 153, 153c, 155, 155d, 157, 157d, 159a, 159e, 
etc. 

" 3 H. Altenmueller, in Ex Oriente Lux, Vol. 19, p. 433. 
]2J E. Drioton, mKemi, Vol. 12 (1952), pp. 28, 33. 



72 



Improvement Era 




Illustrated by Travis Winn 

To My Indian Son 

Leaving for the 

Reservation 

By Carol Clark Ottesen 

Child of Shadow Mountain, 

Coyote brother of the desert, 

Son, 

Go now. 

Slip your brown hand away; 

A black-haired mother waits. 

Bareback you rode 

Into our saddled lives. 

How far from here to there ? 

A white skin and 

A century away. 

Somehow 

We bridged the gap. 

But I was not prepared 
For this tearing I feel. 
We wove you in the fabric 
Of our life. 

Our pattern will be rent 
Till you return. 



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73 



David Whitmer, 

The Independent 
Missouri Businessman 

By Dr. Richard Lloyd Anderson 



Photo by Charles 
F. Holbrook 




David 
Whitmer, 
from a 
recently 
discovered 
daguerreotype. 
Picture is about 
1-inch wide. 




MIWDE 

■::Akaj»iistsiY Pun 



C. T. OAEKER, Jr. 

iBBStUutHIRlBB, 



»015SY TO L£AN 



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&*rtmftgwwi*it-** 



Kb Fftning JnJHfMrtUm to Hi*! 1 * 01 * 1 

Kami!,? and Frwatb. He ' „ 

Daparfa iu IVace, «.bi, 



"T**«tf4 fcjBH>&*i .s«s**.i-: ■ 
Afc4.«MSI|*t:t:*»fl*t "*■ 

■H» docWJneaf f*t)tf«m; 







htkiflc*. Mel < 
J&MHJ fill* ^ ■■ --■■- 



• Each witness of the Book of Mor- 
mon was an individualist. In David 
Whitmer, this quality verged on 
the stubborn. Whether in Mormon 
society or not, he stood like a rock 
for his principles. This outspoken 
and utterly honest personality 
would have been the first to detect 
fraud and expose it. During eight 
years in the Church and 50 years 
of strict separation from it, he 
maintained without compromise 
that he had seen the angel and the 
plates. Only a survey of his life 
will adequately portray an indi- 
vidual who did not use words 
lightly. The strength of the testi- 
mony is the power of the man. 

By birth a Pennsylvania Ger- 
man, David Whitmer still betrayed 
' a German twang" in his conversa- 
tion with George Q. Cannon in 
1884. The family moved about 
1809 to wooded farmland adjoining 
Seneca Lake in western New York. 
A reporter obtained from the fam- 



ily the description of David's father 
as a "hard-working, God-fearing 
man," who was "a strict Presby- 
terian and brought his children up 
with rigid sectarian discipline." 1 
These qualities, broadened by the 
humaneness of the restored gospel, 
characterized the witness-son. Since 
he was a natural leader all of his 
life, it is significant that the first 
mention of him in his community 
is his election March 12, 1825, as 
sergeant in the newly organized 
militia company, the "Seneca 
Grenadiers."- He was then a 
bachelor-farmer of 20. 

His subsequent investigation and 
acceptance of Joseph Smith were 
painted in bold colors in the inter- 
views of his elderly life. All was 
still vivid to him then: rumors of 
the "Gold Bible"; contact with the 
teacher Oliver Cowdery, who was 
traveling to Pennsylvania to see for 
himself; two letters from the young 
schoolmaster expressing firm con- 



viction that Joseph Smith had the 
plates and enclosing samples of 
their translation; a third letter 
from friend Oliver requesting the 
hospitality of the Whitmer home. 
David made a 200-mile trip with 
team and wagon to move the 
translators to his home, and had 
intimate contact with their work, 
events that in later life still glowed 
with the power of God's assistance/' 
By June of 1829 he had given his 
name to the world to declare 
that he saw an angel exhibit the 
plates and heard the voice of God 
declare the translation correct. 

David Whitmer's association with 
Mormonism from 1829 to his ex- 
communication in 1838 can be 
itemized with a little labor. It in- 
cluded sustained missionary jour- 
neys, pioneering in newly settled 
western Missouri, administering the 
affairs of the Church in the trusted 
inner circle of the Prophet. In these 
eight years no more than that many 



74 



Improvement Era 



men were as prominent as was Da- 
vid Whitmer. The pinnacle of his 
recognition was the office of presi- 
dent of the Church in Missouri, the 
equivalent of a stake president in 
terms of current Church organiza- 
tion, but then of such status that 
the First Presidency and the Mis- 
souri presidency sat on the stand 
together at the Kirtland Temple 
dedication. 

What of the man himself? When 
mobs terrorized the Missouri Whit- 
mer settlement, burning homes and 
brutally whipping men, it was 
David who vigorously organized 
the resistance. Two years later in 
Kirtland the lesson of the absence 
of civil protection was still vivid, 
and David was named "captain of 
the Lord's host." 1 The appointment 
was merely the token of a plan, not 
a reality, but the recognition un- 
derlines the Prophet's respect for 
David's courage and reliability. 
Joseph Smith measured the men 
about him well, and his opinion of 
David was recorded in a blessing 
given in 1835, the peak year of the 
witness's service to the Church. A 
few phrases from the copy that 
David treasured for over 40 years 
capture his basic nature. Beloved 
as "a faithful friend to mankind," 
his integrity causes "all his words" 
to be as "steadfast as the pillars of 
heaven." "His character" will be un- 
spotted, and "his testimony shall 
shine as fair as the sun, and as a 
diamond, it shall remain untar- 
nished.""' As far as the intent of 
that blessing, David's continued 
faithfulness was a condition of its 
complete fulfillment, but from the 
point of view of the man's nature, 
his developed personality at age 30 
is depicted, which even in rebellion 
against the Church was not radi- 
cally modified. 

Tragic events culminated in 
David Whitmer's excommunication 
April 13, 1838. In the previous year 
of doctrinal and financial trial, 



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76 



prominent dissenters moved in 
open couneil to depose the Prophet 
and replaee him with David Whit- 
mer, a commentary on the public 
stature of the latter.' 5 Long after- 
wards the witness denied certain 
stories of his apostasy, and gave his 
own version of the processes of his 
thinking. 7 In summary, he simply 
was jealous of the power and sus- 
pected influence of Sidney Rigdon: 
"Rigdon was a thorough Bible 
scholar, a man of fine education, 
and a powerful orator. He soon 
worked himself deep into Brother 
Joseph's affections, and had more 
influence over him than any other 
man living." 8 

At David Whitmer's excommuni- 
cation, the main charge was 
"possessing the same spirit with 
the dissenters. . . ."" This meant 
that he was skeptical of the new 
policies of the Kirtland era and 
had declared economic indepen- 
dence. But David really sought to 
recreate the intimate days of 1829- 
30 at his father's home in Fayette, 
New York. His later writings 
idealize this period when he felt 
closest to God and the Prophet. So 
David Whitmer is really a man who 
declined to grow with the Church. 
His grandson defined his position 
as "standing still." 10 If skeptical of 
further revelations, he nevertheless 
accepted the founding guidance of 
the Church— his letter of with- 
drawal in 1838 alleged a treatment 
inconsistent with "the revelations of 
God, which I believe. . . Z' 11 Al- 
though the Whitmers succumbed 
to McLellin's flattery in 1846-47 
and joined that reorganization, Da- 
vid soon confessed that he had been 
emotionally moved instead of di- 
vinely directed— so he continued to 
wait. This position plus opposition 
to polygamy characterized his fam- 
ily flock, the "Church of Christ" in 
north-central Missouri. 

David Whitmer's separation co- 
incided with Mormon expulsion 



from Missouri. The estranged wit- 
ness remained behind to live a half- 
century in a society hostile to his 
religious views, a situation that 
continually highlighted his rugged 
individualism. Two examples stand 
out, although the Whitmer modesty 
makes it necessary for the historian 
to piece each event together. In 
indignant rebuttal to the charge 
that he had contributed to Mormon 
persecution, David gave back- 
ground details of an incident of the 
year of his excommunication: 
"[W]hen I came to Richmond, 
General Parks . . . pressed me and 
my team into service, and I was 
forced to go and drive a wagon 
load of baggage to Far West. I told 
them if I had to go I would take 
no gun. They said 'all right'; and I 
took no gun." 1 - A reporter recorded 
David's recollection of the heroic 
sequel: "During the melee that fol- 
lowed he was handed a musket by 
the soldiery and ordered to shoot 
Joseph Smith, but threw the mus- 
ket down, declaring he would not 
harm the Lord's anointed.'" 13 

David Whitmer also risked his 
life for his loyalty to country as a 
firm Unionist in a divided county 
in the Civil War. His family knew 
of his open declaration of loyalty 
to Lincoln, 11 and his grandson 
alluded to personal danger at that 
time: "He looked up the cocked 
gun barrel of the brutal men the 
times produced. . . ." ir> These tra- 
ditions tend to confirm a detailed 
story from an unidentified Ray 
County resident. This 1888 recol- 
lection concerns a meeting where 
the majority began to frame resolu- 
tions requiring non-secessionists to 
leave the county: 

"At this point in the proceedings 
David Whitmer arose, walked to 
the platform, and delivered a short 
but very telling speech. He stated 
that no resolutions or threats would 
cause him to run away. He de- 
clared that he was a citizen of the 



Improvement Era 



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April 1969 



77 




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78 



United States, and should remain 
such. He proposed to live or die 
under the old flag. If anyone de- 
sired to shoot him, then was a good 
time. The resolutions were not 
passed, the meeting adjourned to a 
given day, but did not convene.""'' 

The quiet but immovable ways 
of David Whitmer turned grudging 
respect to admiration during the 50 
years of his residence in Richmond, 
Missouri. Three decades of sur- 
viving newspapers chronicle many 
ordinary activities, with supple- 
mentation by public documents. By 
his recollections his sole capital in 
1838 was a wagon and team. The 
census records value his real estate 
at $1,000 in 1850, and his personal 
and real property in 1860 as $5,000, 
increasing to $7,000 in 1870. His 
private assets at death in 1888 were 
probably worth $10,000. 

Perhaps general hauling work 
continued for some time, since he 
gave no specific occupation on the 
1850 census. By 1860 he is listed as 
a "Livery Keeper," and his news- 
paper notices are fairly continuous 
for a quarter of a century for the 
"Livery and Feed Stable" of "D. 
Whitmer & Son" or "Whitmer & 
Co." The editor of the Conservator 
regularly editorialized for his ad- 
vertiser: "They have everything all 
O.K. in their line, and can furnish 
customers with anything from a 
saddle horse to a four-horse coach 
at a moment's notice." 17 For over 
two decades David Whitmer's ad- 
vertisement had the same closing 
message: "Customers may rely on 
promptness, good turnouts, safe 
horses, and moderate charges." 18 
After a time both editor and paid 
notices refer to the business as "The 
Old Reliable Livery and Feed 
Stable." This title symbolized the 
record of the firm and is really a 
comment about its owner. 

David Whitmer's business in- 
terests were broad, and so was his 
service and friendship in his com- 



Improvement Era 



munity. What the Whitmers did 
commercially for Richmond was 
summarized accurately by David's 
great-granddaughter : 

"They filled hauling contracts, 
rented out carriages and buggies, 
and met two trains a day at Lexing- 
ton Junction with a beautifully 
decorated yellow bus. . . . Side 
lines were feed and grain, sand and 
gravel." 10 

David was public-spirited, serv- 
ing on fair boards, and he and his 
wife entered competition and won 
prizes. Named in the newspapers 
as participating in many public 
meetings, he appears as the elected 
chairman of some. Shortly after 
the Civil War he signed as one of 
the "friends of Johnson, Liberty 
and Union,"-" and his temperate 
voice was most influential in this 
reconstruction period. As early as 
1858 he was nominated for city 
councilman, a position subsequent- 
ly held several times.- 1 He was 
elected to fill the unexpired term 
of mayor in 1867-68, during which 
he sponsored several practical pro- 
grams.-- But the active business- 
man of 63 apparently retired from 
further office seeking; declining to 
attempt a second term, he recom- 
mended the election of a "younger, 
more energetic man." 23 His promi- 
nence, however, never diminished. 
The Ray County Atlas of 1877 
featured his picture as one of 20 
influential individuals. 21 Likenesses 
appeared on the same page of his 
lawyer-nephew, David P. Whitmer 
(eldest son of the witness Jacob), 
and Jacob T. Child, the editor of 
the Richmond Conservator. 

A firm friendship existed be- 
tween David Whitmer and the 
editor Jacob Child. This journalist 
was an enlightened reformer of his 
period and had no party connection 
with the Book of Mormon witness, 
who was 30 years his senior. Child 
was a forthright spokesman for the 
causes he championed, and one of 



them was supporting the integrity 
of David Whitmer. The opinions 
of "the famed publisher of the 
Richmond Conservator"- 5 should 
carry a good deal of weight. Dy- 
namic in local and state politics, he 
was elected mayor of Richmond 
and state assemblyman. His fellow 
editors named him president of the 
Missouri Press Association, and he 
was United States ambassador to 
Siam under President Cleveland. 20 
Some of Child's comments on 
David Whitmer favorably mention 
the Whitmer transportation busi- 
ness, perhaps for favors shown. A 



Twenty-two leading 

citizens of Richmond, 

Missouri, signed 

this statement, 

attesting that David 

Whitmer was "of 

the highest integrity." 



step beyond this is a definite per- 
sonal relationship. For instance, 
during the sickness of the witness 
in 1881-82, Child gave regular 
progress reports: "We were glad to 
see Uncle David Whitmer on the 
street Monday looking remarkably 
well. . . ." 2T Later that year the 
town was excited by the marriage 
of David's granddaughter Josic to 
the brilliant young Chicago resi- 
dent, James R. Van Cleave. Writ- 
ing the front-page story with 
Victorian eloquence, the Missouri 
editor noticed the presence of the 
"silver haired patriarch, whose 



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April 1969 



79 



'After 50 years in non-Mormon society, he 
insisted... that he knew the Book of Mormon 
was divinely revealed" 



form is as erect and his eyes as 
bright as when he gazed on the 
Lord's messenger." 28 On several 
definite occasions Child went 
beyond such notices to openly de- 
fend the integrity of the Book of 
Mormon witness. 

Whitmer's election as mayor in- 
duced some spiteful remarks. 
Child's editorial reaction reminded 
his readers that one with "self re- 
spect" would not indulge in vicious 
gossip: "Mr. Whitmer is a gentle- 
man, and as such represented the 
views of our people when they cast 
for him their votes for mayor." 211 
Some fifteen years later the vitriolic 
anti-Mormon lecturer, Clark Bra- 
den, came to the hometown of the 
last Book of Mormon witness and 
publicly branded him as disrepu- 
table. The Conservator's response 
was a spirited front-page editorial 
unsympathetic with Mormonism 
but insistent on "the forty six years 
of private citizenship on the part 
of David Whitmer, in Richmond, 
without stain or blemish. . . ." 30 
Although admitting that theological 
views were open to question, the 
prominent journalist insisted that 
the character of his friend was not: 
"If a life of probity, of unobtrusive 
benevolence and well doing for 
well nigh a half century, marks a 
man as a good citizen, then David 
Whitmer should enjoy the confi- 
dence and esteem of his fellow- 
men." The following year the editor 
penned a tribute on the eightieth 
birthday of David Whitmer, who 
"with no regrets for the past" still 
"reiterates that he saw the glory of 
the angel. . . ." 31 

This is the critical issue of the 
life of David Whitmer. After 50 
years in non-Mormon society, he 



insisted with the fervor of his youth 
that he knew that the Book of 
Mormon was divinely revealed. 
Relatively few people in Richmond 
could wholly accept such testi- 
mony, but none doubted his intel- 
ligence or complete honesty. The 
agnostic John Murphy from neigh- 
boring Polo, Missouri, interviewed 
the witness in 1880 and published 
his version virtually claiming Da- 
vid's denial. In turn, the witness- 
businessman printed a crisp "pro- 
clamation" that he had never 
modified his written testimony. He 
also enlisted 22 of Richmond's poli- 
tical, business, and professional 
leaders to sign an accompanying 
statement that they had known him 
for over forty years as "a man of 
the highest integrity, and of un- 
doubted truth and veracity." 32 This 
certificate rightly claimed that the 
signers knew David Whitmer well 
—personal relationships can be 
traced in many cases, including the 
six that were pallbearers at his 
funeral seven years later. None on 
the list, including Jacob Child, 
publicly accepted the Book of 
Mormon, but all admired the man 
who testified of its truth. 

The existence of witnesses of 
such capacity and credibility con- 
fronts every thinking person with 
a challenge. Those who personally 
talked with David Whitmer seem 
to have sensed the dilemma of 
skepticism. No one explained it 
more clearly than Hiram Parker, 
who lived in David Whitmer's sec- 
tion of town for a decade spanning 
1870, when he listed himself on the 
federal census as a "marble marker 
and deal[er]." Later prominent in 
the insurance business in Detroit, 
Parker wrote an article around the 



turn of the century recalling "Uncle 
Davy Whitmer" and the years that 
they lived "side by side." Reminisc- 
ing about the appearance and per- 
sonal industry of "the last living 
witness," who never allowed a 
weed to mature in his small garden. 
Parker tells why he was "respected 
by all": 

"No one could know Uncle Davy 
and not like and trust him. . . . 
Children liked him, men respected 
him and trusted him, and I never 
heard a word from anyone during 
my ten years' acquaintance with 
him and those who had known him 
intimately for years that spoke a 
harsh word or uttered a doubt as 
to his truthfulness and general 
kindness of heart." 33 

Parker had obviously reflected a 
good deal on how one might ad- 
mire the man without accepting his 
messag'e. Few of his townsmen 
could accept his Book of Mormon 
testimony, but "on any other sub- 
ject or statement of fact neither 
myself or others could doubt." 
Hyrum Parker spent most of his life 
in selling in several states but had 
never met "a more honest, guile- 
less man": "How one can account 
for the delusion that must have 
possessed this old man is beyond 
me. 

Such reasoning cuts two ways. 
Man is both a rational and a ra- 
tionalizing creature. If he can in- 
vent reality, he can also explain 
away what has actually happened. 
David Whitmer insisted on the 
actual appearance of a super- 
natural being. His community in- 
sisted that he was a man of 
remarkable acumen and truthful- 
ness. 

At his death in 1888 a new gener- 
ation of editors reiterated Rich- 
mond's judgment on the last Book 
of Mormon witness. The Conser- 
vator described David Whitmer as 
"one of our oldest and best known 
citizens," 35 but the Democrat was 



80 



Improvement Era 



more personal in its report: 

'[N]o man ever lived here, who 
had among our people, more 
friends and fewer enemies. Honest, 
conscientious and upright in all his 
dealings, just in his estimate of 
men, and open, manly and frank in 
his treatment of all, he made lasting 
friends who loved him to the 
end." 30 

(To be continued) 

FOOTNOTES 

'Chicago Tribune, Dec. 17, 1885. Quota- 
tions herein are modified only in spelling and 
punctuation. 

-Seneca Farmer, March 23, 1825. 

"Kansas City Daily Journal, June 5, 1881. 

'The Book of John Whitmer, Journal of His- 
tory, Vol. 1 (1908), p. 302. Cf. DHC, Vol. 2, 
pp. 281-82. 

"The blessing, copied by David Whitmer's 
admirer J. L. Traughber, Jr., appeared in The 
Return, Vol. 2 (February 1890), pp. 212-13. 
Its occasion appears in John Whitmer's his- 
tory, op. cit., pp. 302-03; the correction of two 
transposed words has been made from LDS 
records. 

c "History of Brigham Young," Deseret News, 
February 10, 1858, cit. Millennial Star, Vol. 
25 (1863), p. 487. 

•Whitmer stated that Lucy Smith relied upon 
hearsay for her reports of him in 1837. Cf. 
Saints' Herald, Vol. 34 (1887), p. 90, with 
Lucy Mack Smith, Biographical Sketches of 
Joseph Smith (Liverpool, 1853), pp. 211-13. 

s David Whitmer, An Address to All Believ- 
ers in Christ (Richmond, 1887), p. 35; cf. 
p. 59. 

"Far West Record, Church Historian's Type- 
script, p. 124; also cit. DHC, Vol. 3, p. 19. 

1(l Gcorge W. L. Sweich, The Return, Vol. 3 
(1893), p. 1. 

"See n. 9. 

'-Letter of David Whitmer to Joseph Smith 
III, Dec. 9, 1886, cit. Saints' Herald, Vol. 34 
(1887), p. 89. 

^Chicago Tribune, Dec. 17, 1885. 

a4 Helen Van Cleave Blankmeyer, David Whit- 
mer, Witness for God ( Springfield, Illinois. 
1955), pp. 51-52; cf. p. 66. 

15 George W. L. Sweich, The Return, Vol. S 
(December 1892), p. 4. 

^Chicago Times, Jan. 26, 1888. 

ll North-West Conservator, Aug. 12, 1865. 

ls Cf., e.g., his Conservator advertisements oi 
Sept. 10, 1863, with July 31, 1884. 

10 Blankmeyer, op. cit., p. 50. 

-"Conservator, Aug. 25, 1865. 

21 See the Conservator of April 9, 1858, April 
5, 1861, and April 7, 1864. He lost by a 48-49 
vote in 1858. 

—Newspaper references to Whitmer's mayor- 
ship are surveyed in Ebbie L. V. Richardson, 
David Whitmer (M. A, thesis, Brigham Young 
University, 1952), pp. 86-87. 

'"■Richmond Conservator, Mar. 21, 1868. 

-'Illustrated Historical Atlas of Ray County. 
Missouri (Philadelphia, 1877). 

-'William H. Taft, Missouri Newspapers 
(Columbia, Missouri, 1964), p. 182. 

*Ibid., pp. 182, 354. Cf. History of Ray 
County, Missouri (St. Louis, 1881), pp. 513-15. 

2 ~Richmond Conservator, July 14, 1882. 

^Ibid., Nov. 17, 1882. 

°-*Ibid., June 22, 1867. 

s0 Ibid., Aug. 22, 1884. 

^Ibid., Jan. 9, 1885. 

32 This statement and testimonial was pub- 
lished as a pamphlet and appeared in the 
Richmond Conservator, Mar. 25, 1881. Portions 
of the original (now at the Church Historian's 
Office) were photographically reproduced in 
Richardson, op. cit., pp. 178-80. 

■""Mormon Reminiscences," published letter 
of Hiram Parker, Detroit, February 15 of an 
unidentified year. Miss Jo Clare Mangus of 
Goodland, Kansas, great-granddaughter and a 
member of the Church, holds the original 
clipping. 

^Richmond Conservator, Jan. 26, 1888. The 
editor was George W. Trigg, a signer of the 
1881 testimonial. 

^Richmond Democrat, Jan. 26, 1888; the 
long biography was rerun Feb. 2, 1888. 



April 1969 




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82 



The Presiding Bishop 
Talks to Youth About 



Tithing 



By Bishop John H. Vandenberg 



• "The earth is the Lord's, and 
the fulness thereof." (Ps. 24:1.) 
All that we have or hope to have 
comes as a blessing to us from 
God. In the Book of Mormon, 
King Benjamin taught this great 
lesson. He asked, "For behold, 
are we not all beggars? Do we not 
all depend upon the same Being, 
even God, for all the substance 
which we have, for both food and 
raiment, and for gold, and for 
silver, and for all the riches which 
we have of every kind?" (Mosiah 
4:19.) As tenants on this earth, 
the Lord calls for a tenth of our 
interest. This is the tithe. 

Tithing is an ancient law. We 
read of Abraham going to Mel- 
chizedek, the King of Salem: "And 
he [Melchizedek] blessed him, and 
said, Blessed be Abram of the 
most high God, possessor of heav- 
en and earth: 

"And blessed be the most high 
God, which hath delivered thine 
enemies into thy hand. And he 
gave him tithes of all." (Gen. 
14:19-20.) 

As Jacob departed from his 
father's house to seek a wife 
among the family of his mother in 
Haran, he stopped for the eve/iing 
and made a covenant with the 
Lord, saying, "If God will be with 
me, and will keep me in this way 
that I go, and will give me bread 
to eat, and raiment to put on, 

"So that I come again to my 
father's house in peace; then shall 
the Lord be my God: 



"And this stone, which I have 
set for a pillar, shall be God's 
house: and of all that thou shall 
give me I will surely give the tenth 
unto thee." (Gen. 28:20-22.) 

In Malachi we find a probing 
question and the promise of great 
blessings: 

"Will a man rob God? Yet ye 
have robbed me. But ye say, 
Wherein have we robbed thee? In 
tithes and offerings. 

"Ye are cursed with a curse: for 
ye have robbed me, even this 
whole nation. 

"Bring ye all the tithes into the 
storehouse, that there may be 
meat in mine house, and prove me 
now herewith, saith the Lord of 
hosts, if I will not open you the 
windows of heaven, and pour you 
out a blessing, that there shall not 
be room enough to receive it." 
(Mai. 3:8-10.) 

Today, as anciently, the Lord 
has given his people the law of 
tithing. President Joseph F. Smith 
said, "The law of tithing is a test 
by which the people as individuals 
shall be proved. Any man who 
fails to observe this principle shall 
be known as a man who is indif- 
ferent to the welfare of Zion, who 
neglects his duty as a member of 
the Church, and who does nothing 
toward the accomplishment of the 
temporal advancement of the king- 
dom of God. He contributes noth- 
ing, either, toward spreading the 
gospel to the nations of the earth, 
and he neglects to do that which 



Improvement Era 



would entitle him to receive the 
blessings and ordinances of the 
gospel." (Gospel Doctrine, page 
226.) 

The law of tithing is given to be 
a blessing. It is to help the mem- 
bers of the Church overcome 
selfishness and learn obedience, 
and is a practical method of es- 
tablishing the kingdom of God 
upon the earth. Through our 
voluntary contributions, we be- 
come more considerate of the wel- 
fare of others, and we reaffirm our 
loyalty to the Church. The princi- 
ple of tithing is truly a measuring 
rod of our faithfulness. No person 
who fails to pay an honest tithing 
can remain true to God. It re- 
quires faith to voluntarily con- 
tribute the substance that we are 
prone as mortals to value so 
highly. The law of the tithe teaches 
lessons that every young man and 
woman needs to learn if he or she 
is to have success and joy in life. 

The tithes are distributed to 
meet the needs of the Church 
under the inspiration of the Proph- 
et and President of the Church. 
Chapels that are erected are 
partly financed through the tithing 
funds. These funds are used to 
support our Church schools, tem- 
ples, and seminaries, to assist the 
needy, and to further missionary 
work. 

Every member of the Church 
has the right and the duty to 
meet with the bishop annually to 
check over his tithing record. This 
provides an opportunity for him 
to declare whether or not he is a 
full tithe payer. The Lord has de- 
clared that we gain blessings in 
life by obedience to various laws. 
To those who are faithful and hon- 
est in the payment of their tithes, 
the Lord has promised blessings. 

During a great famine in ancient 
Israel, a widow at the gate of the 
city Zarephath was gathering 
sticks. Elijah, the prophet, who 



April 1969 



had just entered the city, called to 
her and said: 

"Fetch me, I pray thee, a little 
water in a vessel, that I may 
drink. . . . Bring me, I pray thee, 
a morsel of bread in thine hand." 

The widow, perhaps somewhat 
startled by such a request, ex- 
plained that she did not have a 
cake but only a "handful of meal 
in a barrel, and a little oil in a 
cruse: and, behold, I am gathering 
two sticks, that I may go and 
dress it for me and my son, that 
we may eat it, and die." 

Elijah promised her she would 
be blessed if she would share what 
she had. She did as he bade her, 
and she and her house were 
blessed. It would appear that this 
woman loved the Lord and recog- 
nized her duty to follow the 
prophet's direction, even though 
it meant giving all she had. 

How would we react under 
similar circumstances? Would we 
give our last morsel of food to the 
Lord's prophet? This lady did, and 
as a result of her obedience the 
Lord blessed her. From that time 
until the end of the famine, the 
barrel of meal was never empty, 
because "she went and did ac- 
cordingtothe saying of Elijah. . . ." 
(1 Kings 17:15.) 

In a revelation given to the 
Prophet Joseph Smith at Kirtland, 
Ohio, September 11, 1831, the 
Lord stated: 

"Behold, now it is called today 
until the coming of the Son of 
Man, and verily it is a day of sac- 
rifice, and a day for the tithing of 
my people; for he that is tithed 
shall not be burned at his com- 
ing." (D&C 64:23.) 

I would like to suggest that each 
young man and woman read and 
study Section 119 of the Doctrine 
and Covenants, which outlines our 
obligation in the payment of tith- 
ing — a spiritual test of our love 
of God. o 



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84 




Illustrated by Stephen Conover 



Improvement Era 



Habits 



Today's Family 



By Florence B. Pinnock 



• No one in this world is perfect, so the daily chal- 
lenge is to work toward being something much better 
than we are now. Mother business fills our every 
moment. In all this doing there is a way for each 
one of us to improve. The following paragraphs are 
aimed at all women who answer to the title of 
"Mother." 

1. Forgetting that she is a person, a very special per- 
son, in her own right. 

A mother sometimes so completely forgets herself 
in the everyday struggle of living and doing for her 
family that she is forgotten by them. She becomes 
someone taken for granted; she is not really seen or 
heard or felt or considered— she becomes just a habit. 
Her very constancy makes her obscure; her willing- 
ness to serve makes her invisible. Living and giving 
is a two-way street. She should not take from her 
family their privilege of doing for her. A person is 
more respected if she respects herself. And a mother 
must find time to discover and maintain her self- 
respect, to be a very special person in her own right. 

2. Forgetting that she is a wife. 

Some women are wives just until their first baby is 
born. Then the mother instinct completely takes over 
and the husband, if he is to get any attention at all, 
has to be satisfied with being mothered. When she 
does this, she does herself a great injustice, because 
being a wife and a sweetheart to her husband is one 
of the greatest privileges and joys in life. A husband 
needs a wife as much as children need a mother, 
and a woman can successfully be both. 

3. Tying apron strings too tight. 

Some women tie hard knots, and their children's 
lives are made an extension of their own. A woman's 
responsibility is to mother— not smother— her children. 

4. Living for, instead of with, her children. 

Parents do not own their sons and daughters; these 
children are just given to them by Heavenly Father 
as a loan for a very short time. It is a woman's op- 
portunity and duty to guide and teach her children 
how to grow big and strong. Each day, step by step, 
she teaches them to walk; she cannot walk for them. 
From the time a child is born, it is the mother's job 
to help him to become independent. How proud a 
mother has a right to be when she sees her children 
become independent, honest, kind adults, ready in 
their own lives to start this family circle all over again. 
When this time arrives, a mother takes a deep breath 



and leans back and enjoys her children and grand- 
children. 

5. Expecting too much of a young child; he is not a 
tiny adult. 

A child should not be expected to act like an adult. 
Experiences influence actions, and as a child is gath- 
ering his experiences, he must be expected only to act 
his age. A child can lose all confidence in himself 
if his mother is constantly expecting the impossible. 

6. Getting too involved outside the home. 

When a mother becomes too involved outside the 
home, the costs are high. Children need the security 
of a mother who is constantly caring. This feeling of 
family unity and security comes in direct proportion 
to the amount of attention and thought and love a 
mother spends on her family. Spreading a mother too 
thin can bring disastrous results. 

7. Not making clearly defined footprints for her 

children to follow. ) 

A mother's example is powerful. How she acts and 
reacts casts a constant shadow over her children. 
They need a definite pattern set for them. Like 
mother, like child: what a responsibility this is for 
a mother. 

8. Not teaching her daughters and sons to be ladies 
and gentlemen. 

Kindness, graciousness, courtesy, politeness, and 
refinement must radiate from the mother if her 
children are to act like ladies and gentlemen. If a 
mother is a lady at all times, her daughter will be a 
lady also, and her sons will learn how to treat a lady 
and will always be gentlemen. 

9. Losing her sense of humor. 

A mother is the balance wheel of the home, and her 
lilt must always be felt. In the rush of everyday 
living a tenseness can be generated, and a mother 
can lose her sense of humor. She is the weather- 
maker, and a sunshine and lightness should radiate 
from her so that life will not be lived too earnestly 
and the fun of just being alive will not evaporate. 

10. Working to the point of exhaustion. 

It is true that a mother's work is never done, but 
an exhausted mother is almost worthless. Drudgery 
is not a pretty word, and if a mother slaves her life 
away, it becomes ugly. Such words as organization, 
love, lilt, humor, and togetherness wash away this 
drudgery. Think through each of these words, then 
try to apply them every day. If this is done, life can 
be beautiful and a mother wonderful. 



April 1969 



85 



Look 
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up Nights 
these Days! 




7002 ambitious 
people like you 

who are using their nights to make 
their days more profitable. 

You, too, can further your educa- 
tion and attain greater enjoyment 
in life by attending BYU evening 
classes. Why not spend a few of 
your nights these days at BYU? 

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CLASSES 



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different cities in Utah attend 
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86 



Today's Family 

continued 



High-Altitude 
Recipes 



High- altitude baking adds to the 
problems of the cook. A person 
who is familiar with cooking at sea 
level may find that many of her 
baking recipes result in disaster at 
5,000 feet. She puzzles as her 
beautiful pound cake rises too 
much and then bubbles and falls. 
The trial and error method is time 
and money consuming. We are 
grateful to the research kitchens 
today for their knowledge. 

Most standard recipes are formu- 
lated for use at sea level, and ad- 
justments must be made from 3,000 
feet up in altitude. 

It has been discovered that the 
higher the altitude, the less leaven- 
ing agent is needed. From sea 
level to 3,000 feet recipes seem to 
be standardized, but above this to 
7,000 feet the leavening agent 
should be decreased from % to % 
teaspoon for every teaspoon of bak- 
ing powder in the recipe. The sugar 
in the recipe must also be reduced 
from 1 to 4 tablespoons for each 
cup in the recipe, for altitudes of 
3,000 feet to 7,000 feet. However, 
there should be an increase in the 
liquid used. For each cup of water 
or other liquid in standard recipes, 
add from 1 to 4 tablespoons more 
liquid, as the altitude increases. 
The baking temperature also must 
be increased at higher altitudes. 
Above 3,000 feet increase the oven 
temperature about 25 degrees. 

Be accurate in your measure- 
ments. When the recipe calls for 
sifted flour, sift it before measur- 



ing, then spoon the sifted flour 
lightly into the measuring cup and 
level it off with a spatula. Always 
measure liquids by placing the cup 
on a level surface. Use double- 
acting baking powder. Fill cake 
pans only half full; at high alti- 
tudes the batter has been known 
to overflow. For best results when 
making candy, the temperature 
should be lowered 2 degrees for 
each 1,000 feet of elevation above 
sea level. 

A girl who moved from her home 
in the mountains to sea level to 
keep house for her student hus- 
band became disappointed in her 
baking. Her mountain-bred recipes 
just didn't work. So her problem 
was to change her recipes in re- 
verse. More baking powder, more 
sugar, and less liquid were needed. 
She also learned to turn down the 
oven temperature 25 degrees. With 
a little practice she did all this, and 
soon her cakes were light and fluffy 
as ever. 

High-Altitude Recipes 

Banoat Cookies 

(yields 3i£ to 4 dozen cookies) 

iy 2 cups sifted flour 

1 cup sugar 

V 2 teaspoon baking soda 

1 teaspoon salt 

*4 teaspoon nutmeg 

% teaspoon cinnamon 

% cup shortening 

1 egg, well-beaten 

1 cup mashed ripe bananas 

l 3 /4 cup quick rolled oats 

2 / 3 cup chopped nuts 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

y 2 teaspoon lemon extract 



Improvement Era 



Sift together the dry ingredients. Blend 
in the shortening, egg, banana, oats, 
nuts, and- flavorings. Beat until thor- 
oughly blended. Drop by teaspoonfuls 
about iy 2 inches apart onto cookie 
sheets. Bake at 400° F. until golden 
brown. This will take about 12 min- 
utes. Remove from pan immediately. 

Best Fudge Cake 

24 cup soft butter 
1% cups sugar 
2 eggs 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

2 1-ounce squares unsweetened 

chocolate, melted 
2y 2 cups sifted cake flour 
iy A teaspoons soda 

y 3 teaspoon salt 
1*4 cups ice water 

Cream together the butter, sugar, eggs, 
and vanilla till 'light and fluffy. This 
will take about 5 minutes with an elec- 
tric beater. Blend in the melted 
chocolate. Sift together the flour, soda, 
and salt; add to the first mixture alter- 
nately with the ice water. Beat well after 
each addition. Bake in two 9-inch-layer 
cake pans or in a dripper pan 9x13x2. 
Bake at 350° F. for about 30 or 40 min- 
utes until done. Remove from oven and 
set for 10 minutes; then remove from 
pan and cool completely before frosting. 

Favorite Quick Cake 

4 eggs 

2 cups sugar minus 2 tablespoons 

1 cup milk, scalded 

1 tablespoon butter, melted 

2 cups cake flour 

2 teaspoons baking powder 
14 teaspoon salt 
1 teaspoon vanilla or lemon extract 

Beat the whole eggs; add 1 cup of 
sugar, and beat. Add the rest of the 
sugar, then the scalded milk with the 
melted butter. Beat well, then add the 
dry ingredients all at once and beat 
again. Bake in 3 layers at 350° F. Use 
a rotary or electric beater at all times. 

Salted Peanut Cookies 

(makes about 10 dozen) 

1 cup shortening 

1 cup brown sugar 

1 cup granulated sugar 

2 eggs 

2 cups sifted flour 
1 teaspoon soda 
1 teaspoon baking powder 
y 2 teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon vanilla 

2 cups oatmeal 

1 cup corn flakes 
1 cup salted peanuts 
Milk to moisten so batter will mound 

Cream the shortening and sugar; then 
beat in the eggs one at a time. 
Sift the dry ingredients and add. Then 
add the balance of ingredients. Spoon 
into small mounds on cookie sheet and 
flatten with a' fork. Bake at 350° F. 
(Spanish peanuts, brown skins and all, 
should be used whole.) O 



April 1969 



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87 



Buffs 

and Rebuffs 



"Beginnings of an Artist" 

Your recognition of a young Latter-day 
Saint sculptor in the pages and on the 
cover of your February issue is highly 
commendable. Please don't let it stop 
there. There must be many others of our 
people doing highly creative work in all 
fields. Though you may not be able to 
give them all cover treatment, at least 
give them an opportunity for recognition 
among our own members. This has not 
been done enough in the past, and as a 
result, creative endeavor has become 
something to which we only pay lip 
service. 

Le Roy E : . Whitehead 
Calgary, Alberta, Canada 

Thank you very much for the fine section 
on "The Beginnings of an Artist." It 
added greatly to my usual enjoyment and 
appreciation of your fine magazine. 

Tom Draper 

Helaman Halls 

Brigham Young University 

Provo, Utah 

I would like to tell you how much I 
enjoyed the articles on the Mormon sculp- 
tor. His sculptures were very good, and 
I especially enjoyed his poetry. I hope 
you'll continue to print this type of 
material. 

Audrey M. Godfrey 
Tempe, Arizona 

The cover indicates keen alertness to 
reader interest, particularly for the young 
in spirit of all ages. I'm sure you'll face 
some criticism, but don't worry about it. 
It was excellent, and you are to be con- 
gratulated. 

Also, the full-page, wholesome, color 
photographs of teenage girls in the Jan- 
uary issue were refreshing and made 
superb use of valuable space. 

We need more of this sort of editing. 
It will encourage reader interest among 
our wonderful children, who really count 
most. 

Sheldon B. Christenson 
Salt Lake City, Utah 

An Australian Serviceman Writes 

I am not sure just how to go about writ- 
ing this letter, but my main wish is to 
thank you for this wonderful magazine 
you put out. I am an Australian infantry 
soldier here in Vietnam, and The Im- 
provement Era has been a great help to 
me in many ways. I am a non-Mormon, 
but I'm very eager to further my knowl- 
edge of your church and to come into 
more contact with it. This has been more 
than slightly hindered by my tour of 
duty here in Vietnam, as we have no 
Mormon chaplains, and I have no Mor- 
mon soldiers in my unit. My wife has a 
strong testimony of your church and is a 
member, and she is able to pass on each 



Era to me. It is the Era which has 
strengthened my testimony of the LDS 
Church and helped me live its teachings 
over here. Being from a non-Mormon 
family, out of touch with other Mormons, 
and in a war zone has made it hard for 
me not to stray or lose interest, and so I 
just can't thank your magazine enough. 

In two weeks I'm leaving Vietnam for 
Australia. Already I know that I want to 
be baptized into the Church as soon after 
arriving home as possible. My wife and I 
were married just before I left for Viet- 
nam, but even though I'm still a non- 
member, we are more than ever looking 
forward to and planning for our trip to 
the New Zealand Temple next year. 

I'm a "not so good" letter writer, but 



just have one little story to tell you about 
myself. While here in Vietnam, I've 
longed to talk to some Mormons but 
couldn't, and so from home I got the 
address of a Mormon chaplain over here. 
He was Joseph F. McConkie, who is a 
son of Brace R. McConkie [of the First 
Council of the Seventy]. It was wonder- 
ful to receive his letters of encouragement 
and advice, but I still longed for a talk 
with someone of your church. The 
chance came, and rather surprisingly. 

I contracted malaria in the jungle and 
was taken to the Australian hospital in 
Vung Tau. It was full up, though, and 
so I was taken over to the American hos- 
pital ( 36th Evacuation Hospital ) and put 
in Ward 7. I was not feeling the best, 



Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 



reason to respect ourselves . . 



// 



T'he best way to study human nature," said Tom Masson, 'is when 
nobody else is present." We often ask why other men don't do 
better than they do, why others don't do something about what- 
ever is wrong. And yet, an honest searching of ourselves will help us 
know why the whole of mankind is as it is. We have aspirations, ideals, 
great expectations, along with human weaknesses; failures in perfor- 
mance; sometimes unkindness, not doing always, or often, as well or 
nobly as we could. To cite a whimsical observation: "Folk should 
always be sincere," it says, "whether they mean it or not!" 1 Men are 
an intermixture of the human and divine, with forces of the better 
struggling always with temptation and enticement— sometimes con- 
quering, sometimes giving ground, often rationalizing, often expecting 
more of others than we are willing to do ourselves; often criticizing 
others' mistakes while excusing our own— and yet, not altogether, for 
against all this there is an earnest urge and effort to do and to be better. 
And the greatest conquest is the conquest closest to us. The greatest 
compliment is to have reason sincerely to respect ourselves, and to 
deserve and to have the respect of those who know us best— those 
we love and live with. The distant image is less sure— what others say 
of us, believe of us. And still less certain is the reputation sometimes 
deliberately made to order for a particular purpose. The image that is 
glamorized and gilded may not be accepted by those who have known 
and seen within our inner circle. "Search thine own heart," said John 
Greenleaf Whittier. "What paineth thee in others in thyself may be. 
All dust is frail, all flesh is weak. Be thou that true man thou dost seek." 2 
"The best way to study human nature is when nobody else is present." 



'Author unknown. 

2 )ohn Greenleaf Whittier, "The Chapel of the Hermits." 



*"The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, pre- 
sented over KSt and the Columbia Broadcasting System February 16, 1969. Copyright 1969. 



88 



Improvement Era 



but was overjoyed to find out that in 
Ward 8 every Sunday morning an LDS 
service was held. I attended and found 
the service something wonderful, some- 
thing I'd prayed for since arriving here. 
I've not been able to attend a meeting 
since, but that one meeting was a memory 
that has stayed with me. 

I like to think that getting malaria and 
finally being treated in Ward 7 of an 
American hospital, next to the ward (of 
that same hospital) in which LDS meet- 
ings were held, was the Lord's doing or 
way of showing me a sign, and not a 
coincidence. That is how I shall always 
believe, anyway. 

I hope I haven't taken up too much of 
your time and bored you, but I just 
couldn't help myself. I wished to thank 
you for your magazine, and in this way, 
because I know the LDS Church is true, 
talk to someone of my feelings. 

Cheerio for now and God bless. 
Reg Yates 
Australian Army 
Vietnam 

Paper for the Book of Mormon 

It was interesting for our family to read 
"Writing Paper for the Book of Mormon 
Manuscript" [February], concerning Jor 
seph Knight's furnishing supplies and 
paper to Joseph Smith when he was trans- 
lating the Book of Mormon. It was just 
before Christmas that we learned that 
nine generations in the Church in our 
family are descended from Joseph Knight: 
Joseph Knight, Sr., and Polly Beck, Anna 
Knight and Freeborne DeMille, Maria 
DeMille and Daniel Buckley Funk, Ezra 
Knight Funk and Mary Amanda Henrie, 
Myra L. Funk and Joseph Hansen, Henry 
Daniel Hansen and Adrian Petersen, 
Louise Hansen and Edwin A. Lyman, Ed- 
ward Leo Lyman III and Pamela Morri- 
son, Edward Leo Lyman IV. 

Henry D. Hansen 
Delta, Utah 

Church in Alaska 

Just a note to tell you how much I en- 
joyed the article about the Church in 
Alaska [January]. I've visited Alaska only 
once, about five years ago, but felt the 
spirit among the people that you de- 
scribed so well. That visit whetted my 
appetite for more of the background of 
the Church activity there, and I was 
happy to satisfy it through your article. 

Dr. Oliver R. Smith 

Department of Communications 

Brigham Young University 

Provo, Utah 

". . . so mind-stretching" 

I have enjoyed the articles by Dr. Nibley 
["A New Look at the Pearl of Great 
Price," begun in January 1968] very 
much. Besides dealing with an interest- 
ing subject, the series has a quality that 
is mind-stretching. I would like to see 
articles of similar quality dealing with 
the work of the New World Archaeo- 
logical Foundation. 

Carolyn L. Wright 
West Linn, Oregon 



April 1969 




Mrs. America says- 

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The Church 
Moves On 



subjects." Two bills are currently be- 
fore the Utah Legislature, now in 
session. 



January 1969 



New Zealand North Stake, the fifth 
to be created in the New Zealand Mis- 
sion and the 475th stake now in the 
Church, was organized by Elder Howard 
W. Hunter of the Council of the Twelve 
and Bishop Robert L. Simpson of the 
Presiding Bishopric. Stanley J. Hay was 
sustained as stake president, with 
Walter R. Fell and M. Nitama Paewai 
as counselors. 

New stake presidencies: President 
Merrill Bickmore and counselors Ster- 
ling E. Otteson and Kent D. Broadbent, 
Torrance (California) Stake; President 
Fred C. Adams and counselors Joseph 
W. Cook and Wade H. Redding, Rialto 
(California) Stake; President Dean M. 
Lloyd and counselors Bud H. Hinckley 
and Lewis D. Farnsworth, Pocatello 
(Idaho) Stake. 



lh Elder Dennis Wright, 22, Olympia, 
Washington, serving in the French Mis 
sion, was killed as he pushed his bicycle 
across a railroad grade crossing. 

It was announced that some 2,059,- 
277 visitors had come to Temple 
Square in Salt Lake City during 1968. 
A total of nearly four million people vis- 
ited the 30 visitors centers located at 
various temples and historic sites of 
the Church. Of these, an estimated 
2,867,982 were not members of the 
Church. 



'We have given careful considera- 
tion to the question of proposed laws 
on abortion and sterilization," said the 
First Presidency today. "We are op- 
posed to any modification, expansion, 
or liberalization of laws on these vital 



yj Baton Rouge (Louisiana) Stake was 
organized from portions of New Or- 
leans Stake with Harmon Cutler as 
president and Albert L. Millet and Larry 
G. Eitel, Jr., as counselors. The stake, 
the 476th in the Church, was organized 
by Elder Mark E. Petersen of the Coun- 
cil of the Twelve and Elder Boyd K. 
Packer, Assistant to the Twelve. 

New stake presidencies: President 
Melvin L. Gruwell and counselors Webb 
D. Evans and William H. Sullwold, New 
Orleans Stake; President Donald R. 
Curtis and counselors Earl R. Olsen and 
Wesley R. Law, Emery (Utah) Stake. 



LU Funds to study the Mormon Trail 
from Nauvoo to Salt Lake City for pos- 
sible inclusion in the National Scenic 
Trails System authorized by Congress 
last year were requested by the Bureau 
of Outdoor Recreation in its fiscal 1970 
budget today. 

February 1969 

U Recent devastating storms of 
Southern California have affected many 
members of the Church. "They have 
been evacuated but they are being 
cared for locally. Our storehouses in 
the area are meeting the needs. Mem- 
bers have opened their homes to 
families affected by the rain, mud, and 
flood," reported Elder Henry D. Taylor, 
Assistant to the Twelve and managing 
director of the Church Welfare Pro- 
gram. There has been no reported 
damage to Church buildings. 

February marks the annual Primary 
Children's Hospital Penny Drive, in 
which members of the Church are 
asked to be generous and over-aged, in 
giving two cents for every year of their 
age. 



Tucson North Stake, the 477th now 
functioning in the Church, was orga- 
nized from portions of Tucson (Arizona) 
Stake by Elder Mark E. Petersen of the 
Council of the Twelve and Elder Eldred 
G. Smith, Patriarch to the Church, with 
Don H. Peterson sustained as president 
and John N. Velluti and Jerry T. Tim- 
mons as counselors. 

New stake presidency: Arthur W. 
Elrey, Jr., and counselors, Abraham V. 
Busby and Fletcher F. Acron, Tucson 
(Arizona) Stake. 

DJ The Serviceman's Committee has 
been redesignated as the Military Rela- 
tions Committee, and new responsibili- 
ties have been outlined for ward, stake, 
and regional handling of military-related 
matters. Elder Harold B. Lee of the 
Council of the Twelve is now chairman 
of this committee, with Elders Mark E. 
Petersen and Gordon B. Hinckley of the 
Council of the Twelve and Elder Boyd 
K. Packer, Assistant to the Twelve, as 
members. 

The appointment of Kay A. Schwendi- 
man as a Regional Representative of 
the Twelve was announced. He is to 
serve with the leadership of the Service- 
men's Stake-Europe and on other mat- 
ters in cooperation with the Military 
Relations Committee. There are now 
72 Regional Representatives of the 
Twelve. 



New stake presidency: President 
Glen E. Kraft and counselors James R. 
Nielsen and Terry A. Barker, Kearns 
(Utah) Stake. 



CD 



'America's Manpower Begins With 
Boypower" was the theme of the fiftieth 
annual Scouters' convention in the Salt 
Lake Tabernacle. The most Silver 
Beaver awards — 27 — ever given by the 
Great Salt Lake Council of Boy Scouts 
of America were presented. 



This was designated as Scout Sun- 
day in many of the wards and branches 
in the United States. 



Brigham Young University is the 
twenty-fifth largest university in the 
United States, and the only church- 
related one among the 25, on the basis 



90 



Improvement Era 



of full-time enrollment, according to 
the Office of Institutional Research, Na- 
tional Association of State and Land- 
Grant Colleges. The report lists the 
State University of New York as the 
largest with 159,151 full-time students, 
followed by California State Colleges. 
143,043; University of California (all 
campuses), 92,090; City University of 
New York, 71,828; Wisconsin State 
University System, 51,619; and Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, 47,534. 

E£a President N. Eldon Tanner received, 
in behalf of the Church, a George Wash- 
ington Honor Medal from Freedoms 
Foundation in ceremonies at Valley 
Forge, Pennsylvania. The award was pre- 
sented in recognition of the Church's 
erection of a 100-foot flagpole and 
four accompanying stone panels on 
Temple Square with inscriptions per- 
taining to government, liberty, and the 
law. At the same time KSL-TV and 
KBYU-TV received an award for the 
television program "America, America," 
an Independence Day musical featuring 
the Tabernacle Choir. 

It was announced that John E. Carr 
has been appointed director of the 
Translations Services Department for 
the Church, succeeding J. Thomas 
Fyans. Four divisions dealing with the 
translation and distribution of Church 
manuals and supplies throughout the 
world are under his direction. Richard 
G. Scott is manager of central purchas- 
ing and distribution of English-language 
material. Grant M. Burbidge is manager 
of translation and distribution for lan- 
guages of the Americas. DeMonte W. 
Coombs is manager of Pacific area 
translation and distribution, serving the 
South Pacific and Orient. The manager 
of the European section has not yet 
been announced. 

MS* Brigham Young Monument at 
South Temple and Main streets, Salt 
Lake City, will be lighted at night as a 
result of an agreement reached this 
morning between city officials and the 
Church. 



April 1969 



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The Spoken Word 

Richard L. Evans 



The beauty of good beginnings 



There is a human instinct/' said Phillips Brooks, "which tells us that 
our life, while it is meant to have a great continuousness ... is no 
less meant to be full of new starts. ... It is the same life from its 
beginning to its end, ... yet forever is . . . refreshing its forces. ... It 
loves to turn sharp corners into unseen ways [and] start out with the 
new birth of a new resolution. ... In many ways there is a sense of stir 
and start about us. . . . It is wonderful how ingenious men will be in 
making artificial n§w starts in their lives. ... It is sad indeed when any 
man comes to that state in which each new day does not seem in some 
true sense to begin the world anew, recalling every departed hope and 
brightening every faded color of the night before. ... He must be dull 
who does not feel . . . the beauty of beginnings, ... the newness of 
each new day, . . . [which] keeps [us] from degenerating into [mono- 
tony and] mechanical routine. . . ." x "Look over the world," said Car- 
lyle. "Is it not wonderful, ... if your eyes were open! This Earth, God 
made it for you; appointed paths in it; you can live in it; go to and 
fro on it." 2 "O my young friends, the world is beautiful and . . . life 
is full of promise." 1 Each new day is a blessing; each hour is an oppor- 
tunity. Work at it, learn from it, enjoy it, improve it, repent, improve 
yourselves, respect and live by law and by God-given, time-proved 
principles. Thank God that there is purpose, that there is plan, that 
there is order and design and wisdom over-all, and that we have another 
day, another hour, another chance, another season to shape ourselves. 
Before us all there is always the new beginning, and also the endless- 
ness of everlasting life "that never need be stale to any of us." 1 Thank 
God for the beauty of good beginnings-and that there is no one who 
cannot improve upon the past. 



Phillips Brooks, "New Starts in Life." 

2 Thomas Carlyle. "Lectures on Heroes," Lecture 2. 

*"The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, 
presented over KSL and the Columbia Broadcasting System January 5, 1969. Copyright 
1969. 



Perhaps 

By Mary B. Wall 



Perhaps a heart more loving 
Would have observed the cloud 
That darkly threatened ruin 
To one so young and proud. 



92 



Perhaps an eye with vision 
Would have discerned the strain 
That gripped the stricken youth 
In tentacles of pain. 

Perhaps a hand more helpful 
Would have sensed the precipice 
And reached to halt the plunge 
Into the black abyss. 



Improvement Era 




The Nixon Approach to 
National Administration 



Illustrated by Don Young 



By Dr. G. Homer Durham President, Arizona State University at Tempe 



• Richard M. Nixon became the 
thirty-seventh President of the 
United States of America on Jan- 
uary 20, 1969. His first press 
conference, a few days later, 
brought warm praise from assem- 
bled correspondents. The new 
executive appeared to be calm, 
sure of himself, and steady at the 
helm, and displayed a sense of 
humor previously unnoticed. 

A few evenings later I had the 
privilege of attending a small din- 
ner in Washington, D.C., with a 
new Cabinet officer, head of one 
of the large departments, who was 
the guest of honor. The new sec- 
retary had recently come from 
campus life to the government. He 
remarked that although he had 
been ratified by the Senate, sworn 
in, and was fully occupied with the 
challenge of the great department, 
he was still getting accustomed to 
the idea that he was now in the 
Cabinet. 

"But," he remarked, "let there 
be no mistake about Mr. Nixon. 
He has been President, and in 
command of the situation, from 
the moment he took the oath of 
office." 

The remark was a sincere 
tribute from the new officer, who, 
familiar with the burdens of 
administrative life, immediately 
sensed the skill and leadership of 
the new president. Mr. Nixon's 



April 1969 



eight years as the Vice-President 
(1953-61), previous experience in 
the House of Representatives and 
the Senate, world travel, study, 
preparation, and eight years of 
thoughtful reflection (1961-69) 
have been in evidence. 

In addition to the sure, firm 
touch, what else appears to char- 
acterize the new administration? 
Each President's administration, 
from George Washington through 
Lyndon Baines Johnson, has 
given rise to its own distinctive 
form, flavor, and character — be- 
yond the personality of the Chief 
Executive himself, of the First 
Lady, of the Vice-President, of the 
Cabinet officers and their families. 

Following are some major char- 
acteristics that seem to be evident: 

President Nixon seems to have 
grasped the major importance of 
the American presidency today — 
as a policy-making organ, which it 
has always been. But today's 
presidency has become one of 
the major policy-organs in the 
world. This is true not only for 
domestic affairs, but also for 
world affairs. 

The American people have 
tended to think of the presidency 
as an executive and administrative 
organ, not as a policy-making 
body. Mr. Nixon is making the 
political science lesson clear, how- 
ever, that the presidency is (as 




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Woodrow Wilson hinted) also the 
chief legislator, the chief policy- 
maker for the nation. The clear 
recognition and acceptance of this 
role by Mr. Nixon — in an appropri- 
ate constitutional sense, to be 
sure, but acceptance neverthe- 
less — may well mark the most 
fundamental pattern of his admin- 
istration. He will have to deal 
with Congress, of course. And he 
has begun this relationship with 
the morning breakfasts with Sena- 
tor Everett Dirksen and Represen- 
tative Gerald Ford, Republican 
party leaders of the two houses; 
and, more importantly, by means 
of regular conferences with the 
leaders of the Democratic party 
majorities of both houses. 

Notwithstanding the essential 
value of the presidential-congres- 
sional relationships and roles, 
these are old patterns. There are 
new patterns that disclose the 
Nixon style as chief policy-maker 
for the nation. These patterns 
evolve quite naturally from his 
experience in the National Se- 
curity Council, 1953-61, under 
President Eisenhower, and the 
application of this experience to 
today's pressing problems. 

The President's Cabinet, as a 
group and as individuals, can 
mean almost anything — and has, 
in American history. The first re- 
ception to Mr. Nixon's Cabinet 
appointees was agreeable and 
positive. "Competence, ability, 
capability" were the words used to 
describe his Cabinet choices. The 
public seemed assured of capable 
leadership and sound manage- 
ment at the head of the great 
administrative departments. Mr. 
Nixon's declaration that these 
officers were to choose their own 
assistant secretaries and major 
subordinates (with his approval) 
forecast energy, vitality, and re- 
sponsibility for getting work done. 
This forecast will no doubt result. 



But Mr. Nixon seems to have had 
something more in mind, namely, 
utilization of this capability in 
group policy-making and in the 
coordination of departmental ef- 
forts. Thus, a new style and pat- 
tern emerges. 

That new style and pattern, thus 
far, seems to revolve around three 
major policy areas: (1) national 
security and international affairs, 
(2) the urban crisis and its domes- 
tic correlatives, and (3) long- 
range economic policy. 

The National Security Council 
received a statutory base in the 
National Defense Act of 1947. 
Presidents Truman and Eisen- 
hower used it extensively. Presi- 
dents Kennedy and Johnson 
preferred to utilize other means, 
essentially White House specialists 
and special selected officers in the 
administration, such as the Secre- 
taries of State and Defense. The 
purpose of the NSC, as created in 
1947, was to harmonize foreign 
policy, military strength, experi- 
ence, and commitments, with 
economic and national secu- 
rity considerations. Representation 
from the Joint Chiefs of Staff as 
well as civilians was provided. 
President Nixon has announced 
his decision to use this machinery. 

On the domestic front he has 
established an Urban Affairs 
Council, involving among others 
the Secretaries of Housing and 
Urban Affairs, Transportation, 
Health, Education and Welfare, 
and Agriculture. This will actively 
involve such men as Secretaries 
Romney, Finch, Volpe, Hardin, 
and others, just as the Secretaries 
of State, Defense, and others are 
used in the National Security 
Council. 

The Council of Economic Ad- 
visers, a professional body of 
economists, was created by the 
Employment Act of 1946. This 
professional group continues. But 



Improvement Era 



President Nixon, has also estab- 
lished — using men of Cabinet rank 
from Treasury, Agriculture, Com- 
merce, and others i — a long-range 
council for viewing economic pol- 
icy and goals. 

These three major councils, ad- 
dressing themselves to the great 
issues of international and na- 
tional life, clearly mark the effort 
of the new American President to 
function more effectively in the 
policy as well as the administra- 
tive field. If these organizations 
are used, they may well come to 
characterize the style of the Nixon 
administration, as the Sherman 
Adams-White House staffing pat- 
tern characterized the Eisenhower 
approach to the presidency, and 
the "little State Department" and 
other White House specialists of 
the Kennedy-Johnson years. Presi- 
dent Nixon will have his White 
House specialists, too. Mr. Kis- 
singer and Mr. Moynihan, for ex- 
ample, will relate, respectively, to 
the security and urban affairs 
councils. Mr. Burns presumably 
will relate to the long-range eco- 
nomic effort. 

The President is the responsible 
elected executive who must finally 
coordinate these policy-adminis- 
tration " patterns, including the 
sensitive relations with Congress. 

At this time, a concluding foot- 
note may be added. By providing 
the Vice-President, Spiro Agnew, 
with an office in the executive 
suite (the first time in history), 
President Nixon is not only ex- 
tending his Own experience as a 
working Vice-President, but is also 
seemingly willing to make major 
place for this sometimes forgotten 
office in the day-to-day work of the 
government. Instead of a "splen- 
did misery," as one incumbent 
described it, the vice-presidency 
may become a vice-presidency in 
fact. At least the symbolism is 
there. ° 



April 1969 




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95 



End of an Era 



Life 
Among 

the 
Mormons 



Just before Easter last 
spring our Relief Society 
engaged in making and selling 
divinity -filled chocolate- 
covered Easter eggs as a 
building fund project. When 1 
was asked to make several 
batches of divinity, our little 
boys Scott and Steven 
obligingly helped by licking the 
beaters and bowl as each 
batch was finished. Soon 
after this, we were 



gathered as a family on 
Sunday morning to watch 
general conference 
on television 
from Salt Lake City. 
When one of the speakers 
stated, "Man has a spark of 
divinity in him," Steven 
jumped up, raised his arms high 
above his head, and 
declared, "A spark of divinity? 
Man, I'm full of divinity!" 

— Doris L. Bailey, Corvallis, Oregon 



Some people are easily 
entertained. All you have to 
do is sit down and listen 
to them. 

At the side of a road, as a 
woman looked helplessly at a 
flat tire, a friendly motorist 
stopped to help her. 
After the tire was changed, 
the woman said, "Please let 
the jack down easy. My 
husband is sleeping in the 
back seat." 

The teacher is like the candle 
that lights others in consuming 
itself. 

— Ruffini 

The Holy Bible is not 
only the masterpiece of the 
world's literature, but it 
is also the most majestic 
exposition of religion ever 
given to man. 

— President Levi Edgar Young 



A taxpayer sent in his 

report of his income on a 

form 1040, his check, 

and the following comment 

to the Internal Revenue 

Service : 

No longer does 1040 

scare me ; 

I fill it without any 

suf f erin' . 

I read the instructions, 

Grab hold of my pen, 

And my aspirin, myAnacin, 

And my Buff erin. 

Danger must be known before 
fear can be felt. This is illustrated 
in the story of a dude ranch 
guest from Brooklyn who returned 
to his lodge after a day in the 
mountains, waving a formidable 
set of rattlers. Where did you 
get those rattlers?" asked an 
astonished dude wrangler. "Off'n 
the biggest woim I ever saw," 
was the calm reply. 



He who is self-centered 
travels in very small circles. 

— T. Kirkwood Collins 

"Did you know that Noah 
was the greatest financier that 
ever lived?" "How do you 
figure that out?" "Well, he 
was able to float a company 
when the whole world was in 
liquidation." 

Memo to a Tardy Waiter : 
Remember, sir, a service tip 
(Or if you like, gratuity) 
Is voluntary on my part 
And not a diner's duity! 
— Edith Ogutsch 

Only one person in a 

thousand is a bore, and he 

is interesting because 

he is one person in a 

thousand. 

-Sir Harold Nicolson 



'End of an Era" will pay $3 for humorous anecdotes and experiences that relate to the Latter-day Saint way of life. Maximum length 150 words. 



96 



Improvement Era 





Who said BYU 

was just for 

college kids? 





&ra 



«w* 



' ' 



■ 



Come summer, youngsters from all over 
the nation make the summer scene at BYU. 
In fact they make the place hop! Hop with 
music, with debate, with publications, and 
theatrical fun, with boys' sports and out- 
door survival adventures, with girls' per- 
sonal development programs. 

It's all part of BYU's Summer Youth Pro- 
grams. Programs geared to fire kids up . . . 
to develop their esthetic and leadership 
skills ... to strengthen their spiritual base 



. . . to move them now into exciting new 
areas of personal achievement — in an un- 
excelled LDS environment. 

After all, why should BYU have vacant class- 
rooms, vacant living quarters all summer 
while the best kids in the world — your kids 
— are waiting for the summertime of their 
lives? 

By the way, what are your youngsters doing 
this summer? 



Take your pick of these 

eight never-to-be-forgotten 

summer youth programs 

at BYU: 



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Fourth Annual THEATRE WORKSHOP 
(Drama)— June 16 -July 18, 1969 

Fifth Annual BYU YOUTH ACADEMY 
(Personal Development for Girls) — 
June 16-27; June 30 -July 11; and 
July 12-18, 1969 

First Annual BYU YOUTH ACADEMY 
— THINDERELLA (Personal Development 
for Overweight Girls) — June 16 -July 25, 
1969 

Eleventh Annual SPORTS ADVENTURE 
FOR BOYS— June 16-27 and June 30- 
July 11, 1969 



Fourth Annual HIGH SCHOOL FORENSICS 
WORKSHOP (Debate and Speech)— 
July 21 -August 1, 1969 

Twenty-fifth Annual SOUNDS OF 
SUMMER (Music Workshop)— July 28- 
August 9, 1969 

Thirteenth Annual HIGH SCHOOL 
PUBLICATIONS WORKSHOP (Journalism) 
—August 11-15, 1969 

First Annual NEW PATTERNS OF STUDENT 
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15, 1969 



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